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633 - Mercians under Penda defeat Northumbrians

642 - Mercians under Penda again defeat the Northumbrians

655 - Oswy, king of Northumbria, defeats and kills Penda of Mercia

664 - Synod of Whitby; Oswy abandons the Celtic Christian Church and accepts the faith of Rome: decline of the Celtic Church

731 - Venerable Bede, British monk, completes his history of the Church in England

735 - Death of the Venerable Bede

757 - Offa, King of Mercia (to796): he builds Offa's Dyke to keep out the Welsh

779 - Offa, King of Mercia, becomes King of all England

782 - Charlemagne summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to head the palace school at Aachen: revival of learning in Europe

793 - Vikings invade Britain for the first time in a surprise attack on the monastic community at Lindisfarne (Holy Island).

796 - Death of Offa: end of Mercian supremacy in England

802 - Egbert, King of Wessex (to839)

828 - Egbert of Wessex is recognized as overlord of other English kings

839 - AEthelwulf, son of Egbert, King of Wessex (to 858)

844 - Kenneth MacAlpine, King of the Scots, conquers the Picts; founds a unified Scotland

858 - AEthelbald, eldest son of AEthelwulf, King of Wessex (to 860)

860 - AEthelbert, second son of AEthelwulf, King of Wessex (to 865)

865 - AEthelred I, third son of AEthelwulf, King of Wessex (to 871)

871 - The Danes attack Wessex; are defeated by AEthelred at Ashdown

878 - Alfred decisively defeats the Danes at Edington; by the Peace of Wedmore, England is divided between Wessex in the south and the Danes in the north, the Danelaw

886 - Alfred captures London from the Danes

899 - Edward the Elder, King of Wessex (to 924)

901 - Edward the Elder takes the title "King of the Angles and Saxons"

913 - Edward the Elder recaptures Essex from the Danes

924 - Athelstan, son of Edward the Elder, becomes king of Wessex and effective ruler of most of England (to 939)

926 - Athelstan annexes Northumbria, and forces the kings of Wales, Strathclyde, the Picts, and the Scots to submit to him

937 - Battle of Brunanburh: Athelstan defeats alliance of Scots, Celts, Danes, and Vikings, and takes the title of "King of all Britain"

939 - Edmund, brother of Athelstan, King of England (to 946)

945 - Dunstan becomes abbot of Glastonbury

946 - Edred, younger brother of Edmund, King of England (to 955); Dunstan is named his chief minister

955 - Edwy, son of Edmund, King of England (to 959)

956 - Dunstan sent into exile by Edwy

957 - Mercians and Northumbrians rebel against Edwy

959 - Edgar the Peaceful, younger brother of Edwy, King of England (to 975)

975 - Edward the Martyr, son of Edgar, King of England (to 978)

978 - Edward the Martyr murdered at Corfe Castle; AEthelred II, the Unready (ill-counselled), younger brother of Edward the Martyr, King of England (to 1016)

980 - The Danes renew their raids on England attacking Chester and Southampton

991 - Battle of Maldon: Byrhtnoth of Essex defeated by Danish invaders; AEthelred II buys off the Danes with 10,000 pounds of silver (Danegeld)

992 - AEthelred makes a truce with Duke Richard I of Normandy

994 - Danes under Sweyn and Norwegians under Olaf Trygvesson sail up river Thames and besiege London; bought off by AEthelred

1003 - Sweyn and an army of Norsemen land in England and wreak a terrible vengeance

1007 - AEthelred buys two years' peace from the Danes for 36,000 pounds of silver

1012 - The Danes sack Canterbury: bought off for 48,000 pounds of silver

1013 - Sweyn lands in England and is proclaimed king; AEthelred flees to

1014 - The English recall AEthelred II as King on the death of Sweyn; Canute retreats to Denmark

1015 - Canute again invades England; war between Danes and Saxons

1016 - Edmund Ironside, son of AEthelred II, King of England: he and Canute divide the kingdom, Canute holds the north and Edmund Wessex; Edmund is assassinated; Canute, King of England (to 1035)

1017 - Canute divides England into four earldoms

1019 - Canute marries Emma of Normandy, widow of AEthelred II

1035 - Death of Canute: his possessions are divided; Harold I, Harefoot, becomes King of England (to 1040)

1040 - Hardicanute, King of England (to 1042); he dies of drink

1042 - Edward the Confessor, son of AEthelred II, King of England (to 1066)

1051 - Earl Godwin exiled (until 1052): he returns with a fleet and wins back his power

1052 - Edward the Confessor founds Westminster Abbey, near London

1053 - Death of Godwin: his son Harold succeeds him as Earl of Wessex

1055 - Harold's brother Tostig becomes Earl of Northumbria

1063 - Harold and Tostig subdue Wales

1064 - Harold is shipwrecked in Normandy; while there, he swears a solemn oath to support William of Normandy's claim to England

1065 - Northumbria rebels against Tostig, who is exiled

TIMELINE: 1066 AD-1487 AD      Copyright ©1999, LLC