688 - Conversion of King Caedwalla of Wessex.
He abdicates the throne and departs on a
pilgrimage to Rome. The subsequent power vacuum
is filled by Ine, the son of his second cousin,
sub-King Coenred of Dorset. King Aethelred of
Mercia establishes Mercian dominance over most of
Southern England. He installs Oswine, a minor
member of the Kentish Royal family (and second
cousin of King Eadric), as King of Kent. Wessex
retains Surrey. Prince Swaefheard of Essex is
given West Kent. Eadberht is appointed Bishop of
689 - Prince Oswald, brother of King Oshere of
Hwicce, founds Pershore Abbey.
690 - King Oswine of Kent is toppled by
Wihtred the brother of the late King Eadric of
Kent. King Wihtred takes lands north of the
Thames in revenge against the treacherous East
Saxons. Death of Archbishop Theodore of
Canterbury. He is succeeded by Berhtwald.
691 - St. Wilfred, Abbot of Ripon, tries to
make himself Bishop of all Northumbria. King
Aeldfrith of Northumbria seizes many of his Ripon
Abbey estates and proposes to create a new
Bishopric there. Wilfred is banished and flees to
Mercia where King Aethelred I makes him Bishop of
Leicester. Bosa is restored to the Bishopric of
692 - King Ine of Wessex installs his kinsman,
Nothelm, as King of Sussex.
693 - Death of Bishop Eorcenwald of London. He
is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, London and
later revered as a saint. Death of King Oshere of
Hwicce. He is succeeded by four apparent
joint-kings: Aethelberht, Aethelweard, Aethelric
c.693 - King Ine of Wessex establishes his
West Saxon Law Codes.
694 - King Ine of Wessex attacks Kent and
extorts 30,000 pence from its people in
recompense for the murder of its late king, Mul.
c.694 - Death of sub-King Coenred of Dorset,
father of his overlord, King Ine of Wessex.
695 - Death of King Sebbi of Essex in London.
He is succeeded by his sons, Swaefred and
Sigeheard, as joint-monarchs.
c.695 - King Aeldfrith of Northumbria marries
Princess Cuthburh, daughter of King Ine of
697 - Murder of Queen Osthryth of Mercia by
her own noblemen. She is buried at Barney Abbey
and later revered as a saint.
698 - Dux Berhtred is killed leading a
Northumbrian army against the Picts.
700 - St. Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury,
attends a Church Synod in Wessex, from which he
sends King Gerren of Dumnonia a letter insisting
that his kingdom's Celtic Church comply with the
doctrines of Rome, as agreed thirty-six years
previously at the Synod of Whitby.
c.700 - Queen Cuthburh of Northumbria enters
the religious life. St. Ecgwine, Bishop of
Worcester, and his swineheard found Evesham
Abbey. King Ine of Wessex begins to dispense with
Wessex sub-kings and replace them with ealdormen.
Hamwic emerges as a major Wessex trading town.
Re-foundation of the British religious community
in Wareham at St. Mary's Nunnery.
702 - Archbishop Berhtwald of Canterbury calls
the Synod of Austerfield to decide the rights of
St. Wilfred, some-time Bishop of York. St.
Wilfred is offered Ripon Abbey if he will
relinquish his claims as a Bishop. Wilfred
rejects this and appeals to Rome once more.
703 - St. Wilfred travels to Rome again and is
supported in his struggle to retain his See of
York by the Pope.
704 - King Aethelred I of Mercia retires to
the Abbey of Bardney as its Abbot. He nominates
his nephew, Coenred, as King. St. Wilfred returns
to Northumbria. Death of King Aeldfrith of
Northumbria. The throne is seized by one Eadwulf,
of unknown descent. St. Wilfred moves to support
the new monarch, but his advances are rejected
and he instead falls in with the camp of the late
King's young son, Osred, and Dux Berhtfrith.
705 - Prince Osred of Northumbria and his
party defeat the usurper, Eadwulf, at the Battle
of Bamburgh. He becomes King Osred I at the age
of nine. King Ine of Wessex becomes estranged
from the Kings Swaefred and Sigeheard of Essex
who are sheltering exiled rivals to the Wessex
throne. At the Synod of Brentford, the latter
agree to banish the exiles in return for Ine not
attacking their kingdom. Surrey is transferred
from the Diocese of London to Winchester. Death
of Bishop Headdi of Winchester. The See is
divided between Daniel at Winchester and St.
Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury, at Sherborne.
706 - Archbishop Berhtwald of Canterbury, is
obliged by the Pope's insistence, to call the
Synod of the River Nidd. St. Wilfred is
officially recognised as Bishop of Hexham and
Abbot of Ripon. St. John of Beverley, the
previous Bishop, is transferred to York.
c.707 - Mercia surfers from attacks by their
709 - Kings Swaefred and Sigeheard of Essex
share power with Offa, son of King Sigehere. King
Coenred of Mercia abdicates the throne and
journeys to Rome to become a monk. King Offa of
Essex accompanies him. Ceolred, his cousin,
succeeds to the Mercian throne. Dynastic
rivalries lead to the banishment of their second
cousin, Prince Aethelbald, who flees to the East
Anglian controlled Crowland Fens. Bishop Wilfred
of Hexham dies at Oundle and is buried at Ripon
Abbey. He is later revered as a saint.
710 - Kings Ine of Wessex and Nunna of Sussex
clash with King Gerren of Dumnonia after which
Ine manages to establish a fortress at Taunton.
St. Boniface becomes King Ine's envoy to the
Archbishop of Canterbury.
711 - Dux Berhtfrith leads a Northumbrian
campaign against the Picts and defeats them in
713 - Death of King Eadwulf of East Anglia. He
is succeeded by his brother, Aelfwald. Queen
Cuthburh of Northumbria travels south to found a
monastery at Wimborne.
715 - Kings Ine of Wessex and Coelred of
Mercia clash at the Battle of Wodensbarrow.
Supposed foundation of Tewkesbury Abbey on the
site of an ancient hermitage, by two noble
brothers named Oddo and Doddo.
c.715 - Abbot Ceolfrith of Wearmouth &
Jarrow advises King Nechtan of the Picts
concerning adoption of the ways of the Roman
Church. Death of Kings Swaefred and Sigeheard of
Essex. They are succeeded by Swaefbert, of
unknown relationship. Death of St. Guthlac. King
Ine of Wessex faces rebellion within his kingdom.
716 - While feasting, King Coelred of Mercia
collapses in a fit and dies. He is succeeded by
Coelwald, probably his brother. Prince Aethelbald
returns to Mercia from the Crowland Fens and
seizes the throne from King Coelwald. King Osred
I of Northumbria is killed in combat, possibly by
the Picts in Manau Gododdin. The throne is seized
by his distant cousin, Coenred, of the House of
718 - Death of King Coenred of Northumbria.
The throne is seized by one, Osric, probably a
younger brother of the late King Osred I. Death
of Prince Ingild, brother of King Ine of Wessex.
c.720 - King Ine of Wessex builds a stone
church at Glastonbury Abbey.
721 - King Ine of Wessex slays Prince
Cynewulf, an unknown relation making a push for
the throne. Death of John of Beverley, Bishop of
York. He is buried in Beverley Minster and later
revered as a saint.
722 - King Ine of Wessex attempts a takeover
of Dumnonia. His armies are crushed and have to
withdraw. The fortress at Taunton is demolished.
725 - Death of King Nunna of Sussex. The
exiled Prince Ealdberht, possibly a nephew of
King Ine of Wessex looking for recognition as his
heir, seeks sanctuary in Sussex. Ine attacks the
South Saxons and kills Ealdberht. Death of King
Wihtred of Kent. The kingdom is divided between
his three sons: King Aethelbert II as overking,
King Eadbert in West Kent and Alric who dies soon
726 - Abdication of King Ine of Wessex. He
travels on a pilgrimage to Rome. He is succeeded
by his brother-in-law (and probably distant
cousin), Aethelheard; but this is disputed by
another distant cousin, Oswald.
727 - Former Queen Cuthburh of Northumbria,
Abbess of Wimborne, dies at her Abbey and is
buried there. The former King Ine of Wessex
founds a hospice for English pilgrims in Rome.
728 - Death of the former King Ine of Wessex
in Rome. He is buried in the Church of
San-Spirito-in-Sassia in the district of Borgo
and later revered by some as a saint.
729 - King Osric of Northumbria nominates
Ceolwulf, a distant cousin and brother of his
predecessor as his successor. Death of King
Osric. Ceolwulf takes the throne. The House of
Aethelric is all but extinct and the House of
Ocga in the ascendancy.
c.729 - The Northumbrians sign a peace treaty
with the Picts.
730 - Death of Prince Oswald, rival claimant
to the Wessex throne.
731 - The Venerable Bede completes his history
of the Church in England. King Ceolwulf of
Northumbria is seized by unknown opponents and
forced to enter a monastery. His supporters
subsequently restore him to the throne. Bishop
Acca of Hexham is expelled from his See. These
two events are almost certainly connected.
c.731 - The Mercians are expelled from Powys
by King Elisedd of that kingdom.
733 - King Aethelbald of Mercia overruns a
large portion of Somerset and wrests the county
from Wessex control.
735 - Death of the Venerable Bede. The See of
York achieves archiepiscopal status.
737 - King Ceolwulf of Northumbria abdicates
in favour of his cousin, Eadberht, and becomes a
monk at Lindisfarne Priory.
738 - Death of King Swaefbert of Essex. He is
succeeded by Saelred, a minor member of the Essex
740 - Death of King Aethelheard of Wessex. He
is succeeded by a distant kinsman, Cuthred. King
Eadberht of Northumbria marches his army north to
attack the Picts. King Aethelbald of Mercia takes
advantage of his absence and ravages Southern
Northumbria. Internal struggles re-emerge in
Northumbria with the murder of Earnwine, son of
the late usurping King Eadwulf.
c.740 - Death of King Mildfrith of Magonset.
He is replaced by a Mercian Ealdorman. King
Aethelbald of Mercia takes control of Berkshire
743 - Kings Aethelbald of Mercia and Ceolred
of Wessex join forces to attack Gwent and Powys.
St. Wihtburh, youngest daughter of the late King
Anna of East Anglia, dies at East Dereham Abbey
and is buried there.
c.744 - Construction of Wat's Dyke. The border
between Mercia and Powys is set there.
746 - Death of King Saelred of Essex. He is
succeeded by Swithred, grandson of the late King
748 - Death of King Eadbert of West Kent. He
is succeeded by his sons, Eadbert and Eardwulf.
749 - Death of King Aelfwald of East Anglia.
He is succeeded by Hun, Beorna and Alberht.
Relationship unknown. Beorna emerges as the
dominant monarch. King Aethelbald of Mercia calls
the Synod of Gumley and agrees to exempt
monasteries from Royal service.
750 - Dynastic unrest in Northumbria. King
Eadnberht imprisons Bishop Cynewulf of
Lindisfarne at Bamburgh and besieges Prince Offa,
son of the late King Aeldfrith in Lindisfarne
Priory. Almost dead from hunger, he is eventually
dragged from his sanctuary.
752 - King Eadberht of Northumbria takes Kyle
from King Dumnagual of Strathclyde, on the death
of the latter's father, Teudebur. King Cuthred of
Wessex clashes with King Aethelbald of Mercia at
the Battle of Burford and manages to throw off
his claim to Mercian overlordship.
756 - Death of King Cuthred of Wessex. He is
succeeded by his distant kinsman, Sigeberht. King
Eadberht of Northumbria and King Angus I of the
Picts successfully besiege King Dumnagual of
Strathclyde at Dumbarton. However, Eadberht's
entire force is subsequently wiped out, probably
by the Britons, at the Battle of
757 - King Aethelbald of Mercia is murdered by
his own household in a dynastic coup by one
Beornred. He is buried at Repton. King Beornred
is quickly ousted by Aethelbald's distant cousin,
Offa. In the meantime, Mercian supremacy over
Southern England is lost. King Sigeberht of
Wessex acts unjustly and is removed from power by
a council of nobles, in favour of his distant
kinsman, Cynewulf. Sigeberht is given control of
Hampshire, probably as ealdorman; but he murders
one of his own men and is driven out and
eventually suffers the same fate. First written
record of the county of Hampshire.
758 - King Eadberht of Northumbria abdicates
in favour of his son, Oswulf. He becomes a monk
at York. Death of King Swithred of Essex. He is
succeeded by Sigeric I, son of the late King
c.758 - King Cynewulf of Wessex retakes
Berkshire from the Mercians. Death of King Beorna of East Anglia.
Apparent succession of Prince Aethelred, a
descendant of King Raedwald of East Anglia, as
759 - King Oswulf of Northumbria is murdered
by his own household at Methel Wongtun.
The Deiran patrician, Aethelwald Moll, who
probably conspired in the regicide, seizes the
throne. He may have been a descendant of King
Oswine of Deira.
760 - The Battle of Hereford is fought
probably between the Mercians and the Kingdom of
Brycheiniog under King Nowy Hen.
c.760 - Building work, under Abbot Guba
expands the Abbey Church at Glastonbury.
761 - King Aethelwald Moll of Northumbria
faces a rebellion under a rival claimant to the
throne named Oswine. The latter is defeated after
the three day Battle of Eildon.
762 - Death of King Aethelbert II of Kent. His
nephew, King Eadbert of West Kent, possibly rules
all Kent for a time. Sigered, probably an East
Saxon, succeeds in West Kent. Death of King
Eadbert also, followed by the establishment of
Eanmund as King of Kent. King Aethelwald Moll of
Northumbria marries his queen, Aethelthryth, at
764 - King Offa of Mercia brings an end to the
rule of Kings Eanmund and Sigered of Kent. He
imposes Mercian overlordship on the kingdom, but
allows a local king, Heabert, to rule there.
Death of ex-King Ceolwulf of Northumbria. He is
buried at Lindisfarne Priory and later revered as
765 - King Heabert of Kent is joined in ruling
Kent by King Aethelbert II's son, Ecgbert II.
King Aethelwald Moll of Northumbria is deposed at
Pincanheale, possibly by at a gathering of
his own magnates. He enters a monastery. The
throne is taken by Ealchred, a distant cousin of
the late King Oswulf.
768 - Death of the former King Eadberht of
Northumbria. In an attempt to strengthen his
position, King Ealchred of Northumbria marries
Princess Osgyfu, daughter of the late King Oswulf
c.770 - King Ealchred of Northumbria takes an
interest in continental missionary activities and
sends Willehad to Frisia.
771 - King Offa of Mercia defeats the
Haestingas and joins their little region to his
sub-kingdom of Sussex.
772 - Possible deposition of King Ecgbert II
of Kent with subsequent direct rule from Mercia.
773 - King Ealchred of Northumbria makes
overtures of friendship toward King Charlemagne
of the Franks.
774 - Unrest in the Northumbrian Church
appears to lead to the expulsion of King Ealchred
who is driven from York. He sails from Bamburgh
into exile amongst the Picts. He is replaced by
Aethelred I, the eleven year old son of the late
King Aethelwald Moll of Northumbria.
776 - King Ecgbert II of Kent defeats the
Mercians at the Battle of Otford and re-asserts
himself as King of Kent.
778 - Unrest in Northumbria leads to King
Aethelred I ordering the execution of three of
his Duces. This considerably weakens his
779 - Offa, King of Mercia, becomes "King
of All England". Offa defeats King
Cynewulf of Wessex at the Battle of Bensington
and seizes control of Berkshire, and probably
London as well. Death of King Aethelred of East
Anglia. He is succeeded by his son, Aethelberht.
King Aethelred I of Northumbria is driven from
the kingdom by Prince Aelfwald, son of the late
King Oswulf who takes the throne as Aelfwald I.
c.780 - The rise of Aldwich as an important
trading centre under Mercian control. King Offa
of Mercia possibly establishes a Royal Palace at
Aldermanbury, on the site of the old Roman
Cripplegate fort and Amphitheatre.
781 - The King Charlemagne of the Franks
summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to
head the palace school at Aachen.
784 - Construction of Offa's Dyke, the
artificial bank and ditch boundary between
England and Wales, is begun at the command of
King Offa of Mercia. Prince Ealmund of Wessex
appears as King of Kent, possibly as a
joint-monarch in some sort of alliance with his
brother-in-law, King Ecgbert II.
785 - King Offa of Mercia re-asserts his
control of Kent, deposes King Ecgbert II and
establishes direct Mercian rule. Ecgbert's
brother, Prince Eadbert Praen flees to the Court
of King Charlemagne of the Franks and enters holy
786 - The Yorkist scholar Alcuin accompanies
the Papal Legates, Bishops George of Ostia and
Theophylact of Todi, from France to the Mercian
Royal Court. King Aelfwald I of Northumbria also
receives Bishop George at a Northumbrian
ecclesiastical council. The exiled Wessex noble,
Cyneheard, brother of the late King Sigeberht of
Wessex, ambushes King Cynewulf of Wessex while he
is at Meretun with his mistress, and kills
him. He is buried at Winchester. The Wessex
nobles refuse to recognise Cyneheard as king.
They execute him and, through the support of King
Offa of Mercia, elect one Beorhtric instead.
Cyneheard is buried at Axminster. Beorhtric's
rival claimant to the Wessex throne, a very
distant nephew of the late King Ine named Egbert,
is driven across the Channel. Egbert settles at
the Court of King Charlemagne of the Franks.
787 - Kings Offa of Mercia and Beorhtric of
Wessex call the Synod of Chelsea, which is
attended by the Papal Legate. There, Offa
persuades the Papacy to grant Archiepiscopal
status to the Mercian See of Lichfield. Bishop
Hygeberht is thus elevated and given control of
Hereford, Worcester, Leicester, Lindsey, Dunwich
and Elmham, as well as Lichfield. In order to
secure the Royal succession, Offa has Hygeberht
crown his son, Ecgfrith, King of Mercia within
his father's own lifetime, possibly at Brixworth.
Offa founds Winchcombe Abbey. Archbishop
Jaenberht of Canterbury is alienated from Mercia.
789 - Assassination of King Aelfwald I of
Northumbria, probably at Chesters, at the
instigation of Patrician Sicga. He is
buried at Hexham Abbey and his sons, Oelf and
Oelfwine, seek sanctuary in York Minster. The son
of the late King Ealchred is installed as King
Osred II of Northumbria. The Vikings attack
Britain for the first time with three ships
raiding Portland. Thinking them to be peaceful
traders, High-Reeve Beaduheard of Dorchester
rides out to greet them and his killed. King
Beorhtric of Wessex marries Princess Eadburh,
daughter of King Offa of Mercia, and accepts
790 - King Aethelred I returns to Northumbria,
captures King Osred II, forces him to become a
monk and ejects him from the kingdom. He flees to
the Isle of Man. Aethelred then faces a rebellion
by a rival, named Eardwulf. The latter is
captured and hanged outside the gates to Ripon
Abbey. The body is taken into the Abbey where
Eardwulf recovers and escapes to exile. King
Charlemagne of the Franks begins to nurture
Northumbrian friendship in order to circumscribe
the power of King Offa of Mercia.
c.790 - King Offa of Mercia takes control of
East Anglia. King Aethelberht mints his own coins
in defiance of his overlord.
791 - Princes Oelf and Oelfwine of Northumbria
are persuaded to leave their sanctuary in York
Minster and are immediately forcibly drowned in Wonwaldremere
at the instigation of King Aethelred I.
792 - King Aethelred I of Northumbria marries
Princess Aelfflaed, daughter of King Offa of
Mercia, at Catterick. Unrest in Northumbria
tempts the exiled King Osred II back to his
kingdom from the Isle of Man. His supporters
dessert him and he is killed by King Aethelred's
men at Aynburg. He is buried at Tynemouth
Priory. King Offa of Mercia arranges coastal
defences to fend off Viking attacks.
793 - Vikings attack Britain in a surprise
raid on the monastic community at Lindisfarne
794 - King Aethelberht of East Anglia visits
the Royal Mercian Court at Sutton Walls, with a
view to marrying Princess Elfthryth. Her father,
King Offa of Mercia, already unhappy with
Aethelberht's rejection of his overlordship, has
him executed, supposedly after the wicked Queen
Cynethryth of Mercia accuses Aethelberht of
making advances towards her. He is buried at
Marden and later revered as a saint. East Anglia
ruled directly from Mercia.
795 - King Offa of Mercia receives gifts from
King Charlemagne of the Franks. Offa re-founds
St. Albans Abbey, supposedly in thanks for
overrunning East Anglia.
796 - King Offa of Mercia and King Charlemagne
of the Franks seal a trading agreement and a
marriage alliance is proposed. However, King Offa
dies soon afterward. He is buried at Bedford and
succeeded for a short time by his son, Ecgfrith,
and then a distant cousin, Coenwulf. Prince
Eadbert Praen leaves the church, returns to Kent
and claims his throne. One Eadwald proclaims
himself King of East Anglia, but is later ousted
by King Coenwulf of Mercia. Direct rule from
Mercia is re-established. King Aethelred I of
Northumbria is murdered, probably at Corbridge,
by his Ealdormen, Ealdred and Wada. Ealdorman
Torhtmund slays Ealdred in revenge. The kingdom
is plunged into confusion. The Patrician
Osbald is placed on the throne, but is deserted
by his supporters after only twenty-seven days.
He flees from Lindisfarne to Pictland. Another
faction, brings back King Aethelred I's old
back-from-the-dead rival, Eardwulf, as King. King
Eardwulf dismisses his wife and publicly takes a
concubine. He is alienated from Archbishop
Eanbald II of Canterbury. King Coenwulf of Mercia
gives protection to Eardwulf's enemies. The
Yorkist Scholar, Alcuin, is made Abbot of
Saint-Martin in Tours by King Charlemagne of the
797 - King Coenwulf of Mercia tries to
re-assert his domination of North-East Wales. He
clashes with Welsh forces, including those of
Powys and Dyfed, at the Battle of Rhuddlan. King
Maredydd of Dyfed is killed in the fighting. The
Mercians push on westward.
798 - The Mercians of King Coenwulf invade
Gwynedd and kill King Caradog of that country in
Snowdonia. The Mercians also defeat and capture
King Eadbert Praen of Kent. King Coenwulf of
Mercia introduces his brother, Cuthred, as a
sub-King of Kent. King Sigeric I of Essex
abdicates and departs for Rome. His son, Sigered,
takes the throne. Ealdorman Wada attempts to
return King Osbald to the Northumbrian throne.
The Yorkist Abbot Alcuin of Saint-Martin, Tours
writes to the exiled Osbald in order to dissuade
him. Wada is defeated by King Eardwulf of
Northumbria at the Battle of Billington Moor.
799 - Death of the former King Osbald of
Northumbria as an Abbot in exile. He is buried in
York. King Eardwulf of Northumbria worried about
further rivals, has Ealdorman Moll, probably a
relation of the late King Aethelwald Moll,
800 - King Eardwulf of Northumbria has his men
seize Prince Ealhmund, son of the late King
Ealchred, and put him to death. He is buried at
Derby and later revered as a saint.
c.800 - Retirement of Archbishop Hygeberht of
Lichfield. He is succeeded by Aldwulf. King
Coenwulf of Mercia is on better terms with the
Archiepiscopate of Canterbury than his
predecessor, and unsuccessfully attempts to have
the Mercian Archiepiscopal See transferred to
801 - King Eardwulf of Northumbria invades
Mercia in order to flush out his enemies taking
refuge there under King Coenwulf. After a long
campaign the nobles and Bishops on both sides
negotiate a peace and the two Kings confirm this
EBK 599 AD-937 AD
Saxon 802 AD-898 AD
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