British History Resources

T I M E L I N E
of BRITISH HISTORY (1066-1487)

AD

1066
Harold II is crowned king the day after Edward the Confessor dies. Tostig and Harold Hardraada of Norway invade England: Harold defeats them at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, killing both.

Battle of Hastings: 19 days after battle of Stamford Bridge, William of Normandy lands at Pevensey, defeats and kills Harold

William I, the Conqueror, first Norman King of England (to 1087)

1067
Work is begun on building the Tower of London.

1068
The Norman Conquest continues until 1069: William subdues the north of England (the "Harrying of the North" ): the region is laid waste

1070
Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England

1072
William invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward
the Wake.

1086
Domesday Book is completed in England

1087
William II, Rufus, King of England (to 1100); his elder brother, Robert, is Duke of Normandy

1093
Donald Bane, King of Scots (to 1097), following the death of his brother, Malcolm III, in battle against the English
1097
Edgar, second son of Malcolm Canmore, King of Scotland (to 1107); he defeats Donald Bane with the assistance of William II of England

1099
Crusaders capture Jerusalem; Godfrey of Bouillon is elected King of Jerusalem

1100
Henry I, youngest son of William the Conqueror, King of England (to 1135), following assassination of William Rufus

1106
Henry I defeats his brother Rober, Duke of Normandy, at battle of Tinchebrai: Robert remains captive for life

1113
Founding of the Order of St. John is formally acknowledged by the papacy

1114
Matilda (Maud), daughter of Henry I of England marries Emperor Henry V

1118
Hugues de Payens founds the order of Knights of Templars

1120
William, heir of Henry I of England, is drowned in wreck of the "White Ship"

1129
Empress Matilda, widow of Henry V, marries Geoffrey the Handsome, Count of Anjou, nicknamed " Plantagenet "

1139
Matilda lands in England

1141
Matilda captures Stephen at the battle of Lincoln, and reigns disastrously as queen; she is driven out by a popular rising and Stephen restored

1148
Matilda leaves England for the last time

1152
Marriage of Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine is annulled on grounds of blood relationship

Eleanor marries Henry of Anjou, allying Aquitaine to his lands of Anjou and Normandy, two months after her divorce

1153
Henry of Anjou, son of Matilda, invades England and forces Stephen to make him heir to the English throne

1154
Henry II, King of England (to 1189); he also rules more than half of France

Pope Adrian IV (to 1159) (Nicholas Breakspear, the only English pope)

1155
Henry II appoints the Archdeacon of Canterbury, Thomas a Becket, as Chancellor

1159
Henry II levies scutage, payment in cash instead of military service
1162
Becket is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and at once quarrels with Henry II over the Church's rights

1164
Constitutions of Clarendon; restatement of laws governing trial of ecclesiastics in England; Becket is forced to flee to France

1170
Becket is reconciled with Henry II, returns to Canterbury; is murdered by four knights after Henry's hasty words against him

1173
Rebellion of Henry's eldest sons, Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey, supported by their mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine

Thomas a Becket canonized

1189
Richard I, Coeur de Lion, eldest surviving son of Henry II, King of England (to 1199)

1191
Richard I conquers Cyprus and captures the city of Acre

1192
Richard I captures Jaffa, makes peace with Saladin; on the way home he is captured by his enemy, Duke Leopold of Austria

1193
Leopold hands Richard over to Emperor Henry VI, who demands ransom

1194
Richard is ransomed and returned to England

1199
John Lackland, youngest son of Henry II, King of England (to 1216)

1203
John of England orders the murder of his nephew Arthur, Duke of Brittany

1207
Pope Innocent III appoints Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury; John refuses to let him take office

1208
Innocent III lays England under interdict

1209
Cambridge University is founded in England

Innocent III excommunicates John for attacks on Church property

1213
Innocent III declares John deposed; John hurriedly makes peace

1215
Magna Carta; English barons force John to agree to a statement of their rights

1216
Henry III becomes king of England at age nine (to 1272)

1227
Henry III begins personal rule in England

1256
Prince Llewellyn sweeps English from Wales
1264
Simon de Montfort and other English barons defeat Henry III at battle of Lewes

1265
De Montfort's Parliament: burgesses from major towns summoned to Parliament for the first time

Henry III's son Edward defeats and kills Simon de Montfort at battle of Evesham

1272
Edward I, King of England (to 1307)

1283
Edward I defeats and kills Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and executes Llewellyn's brother David; conquest of Wales complete

1290
Edward I expells all Jews from England

1291
Scots acknowledge Edward I of England as suzerain; he arbitrates in succession dispute

1295
Model Parliament of Edward I : knights and burgesses from English shires and towns summoned. First representative parliament

1296
Edward I of England deposes John Balliol from Scottish throne

1297
Battle of Cambuskenneth: Scottish patriot William Wallace defeats English army

1298
Edward I defeats Wallace at battle of Falkirk and reconquers Scotland

1301
Edward I of England invests his baby son Edward as Prince of Wales

1305
The English capture and execute William Wallace

1306
New Scottish rebellion against English rule led by Robert Bruce
Robert I, the Bruce crowned King of Scotland (to 1329) at Scone
1307
Edward I dies on march north to crush Robert Bruce

Edward II, King of England (to 1327)

1310
English barons appoint 21 peers, the Lords Ordainers, to manage Edward II's household

1312
Order of Knights Templar abolished

1314
Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent

1326
Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer sail from France with an army to rebel against Edward II of England

1327
Parliament declares Edward II deposed, and his son accedes to the throne as Edward III

Edward II is hideously murdered, nine months later

1333
Edward III invades Scotland on Balliol's behalf and defeats the Scots at battle of Halidon Hill

1337
Edward III of England, provoked by French attacks on his territories in France, declares himself king of France

Beginning of "The Hundred Years' War " between England and France (ends 1453)

1338
Treaty of Koblenz: alliance between England and the Holy Roman Empire

1340
Naval victory at Sluys gives England the command of the English Channel

English Parliament passes four statues providing that taxation shall be imposed only by Parliament

1346
Edward III of England invades France with a large army and defeats an even bigger army under Philip VI at the battle of Crecy

1347
The English capture Calais

1348
Edward III establishes the Order of the Garter

Black Death reaches England

1351
The English remove the Pope's power to give English benefices to foreigners

1353
Statue of Praemunire: English Parliament forbids appeals to Pope

1356
Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward III, defeats the French at the battle of Poitiers, capturing King John II

1360
Treaty of Bretigny ends the first stage of the Hundred Years' War. Edward III gives up claim to French throne

1369
Second stage of war between England and France begins

1370
Edward the Black Prince sacks Limoges

1372
French troops recapture Poitou and Brittany.

Naval battle of La Rochelle: French regain control of English Channel

1373
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, leads new English invasion of France

1374
John of Gaunt returns to England and takes charge of the government.
Edward III in his dotage, the Black Prince is ill

1375
Truce of Bruges ends hostilities between England and France

1376
The Good Parliament in England, called by Edward the Black Prince, introduces many reforms of government

Death of Edward the Black Prince, aged 45

The Civil Dominion of John Wyclif, an Oxford don, calling for Church reforms

1377
Richard II, son of the Black Prince, King of England (to 1399)

1382
John Wyclif is expelled from Oxford because of his opposition to Church doctrines

1386
John of Gaunt leads an expedition to Castile, which he claims in his wife's name; fails 1388

1387
Geoffrey Chaucer begins work on The Canterbury Tales

1389
Richard II, aged 22, assumes power

1394
Richard II leads expedition to subdue Ireland; returns to England 1395

1396
Richard II marries the seven-year old Princess Isabella of France

1399
Death of John of Gaunt.

Gaunt's eldest son, Henry of Bolingbroke, lands in Yorkshire with 40 followers, and soon has 60,000 supporters: Richard II is deposed; Bolingbroke becomes Henry IV, King of England (to 1413)

1400
Richard II murdered at Pontefract Castle

Owen Glendower proclaims himself Prince of Wales and begins rebellion

1402
Henry IV enters Wales in pursuit of Glendower

1403
Battle of Shrewsbury; rebellion by the Percy family: Henry IV defeats and kills Harry "Hotspur" Percy

1406
Henry, Prince of Wales, defeats Welsh

1413
Henry V, King of England (to 1422)

1415
Henry V invades France, and defeats the French at Agincourt

1416
Death of Owen Glendower

1422
Deaths of Henry V of England and Charles VI of France

Henry VI, King of England (to 1461)

1424
John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England, defeats the French at Cravant

1428
English begin siege of Orleans

1429
Jeanne d'Arc, appointed military commander raises siege of Orl`eans:

Charles VII crowned king of France at Rheims

1430
Burgundians capture Jeanne d'Arc and hand her over to the English

1431
Jeanne d'Arc burned as a witch at Rouen

Henry VI of England crowned king of France in Paris

1453
Hundred Years' War ends: Englands only French possession is Calais

Henry VI becomes insane

1454
Richard, Duke of York, is regent of England while Henry VI is insane

Printing with movable type is perfected in Germany by Johannes Gutenberg

1455
Henry VI recovers. Richard of York is replaced by Somerset and excluded from the Royal Council

War of the Roses - civil wars in England between royal houses of York and Lancaster (until 1485)

Battle of St. Albans. Somerset defeated and killed

1460
Battle of Westfield. Richard of York is defeated and killed

Earl of Warwick (the Kingmaker) captures London for the Yorkists

Battle of Northampton: Henry VI is captured by Yorkists

1461
Battles of Mortimer's Cross and Towton: Richard's son, Edward of York, defeats Lancastrians and becomes king

Edward IV, King of England (to 1483)

1465
Henry VI imprisoned by Edward IV

1466
Warwick's quarrels with Edward IV begin; forms alliance with Louis XI

1470
Warwick turns Lancastrian: he defeats Edward IV and restores
Henry VI

1471
Battle of Barnet. Edward IV defeats and kills Warwick
Henry VI dies, probably murdered in the Tower of London

1475
Edward IV invades France
Peace of Piequigny between England and France

1476
William Caxton sets up printing press at Westminster

1483
Death of Edward IV

Edward V, King of England; he is deposed by his uncle, Richard Duke of Gloucester

Richard III, King of England (to 1485)

Edward V and his brother are murdered in the Tower of London

1484
Caxton prints Morte D'Arthur, the poetic collection of legends about King Arthur compiled by Sir Thomas Malory

1485 Battle of Bosworth Field: Henry Tudor, with men, money and arms provided by Charles VIII of France, defeat and kill Richard III in the decisive (but not final) battle of the Wars of the Roses.

1487
Battle of Stoke Field: In final engagement of the Wars of the Roses, Henry VII, defeats Yorkist army "led" by Lambert Simnel (who was impersonating Edward, the nephew of Edward IV, the only plausible royal alternative to Henry, who was confined in the Tower of London).

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