- Welsh bard, Prince Aneirin of the Northern
Pennines, writes the poem, Y Gododdin, recording
the events of the Battle of Catterick.
- The Synod of Chester. Death of St. Asaph,
Bishop of Llanelwy.
- St. Augustine of Canterbury meets with the
Welsh Bishops at Aust near Chepstow. He accuses
them of acting contrary to Church teachings,
failing to keep Easter at the prescribed Roman
time and not administering baptism according to
the Roman rite. He also insists that they help in
the conversion of their enemy, the Saxons, and
look to Canterbury as their spiritual centre. The
Welsh tactfully decline.
- The Welsh Bishops meet for a second time with
St. Augustine of Canterbury. He neglects to rise
to greet them, lectures them again and insists
they submit to him. The Welsh send him packing.
They refuse to recognise the authority of a
church within their enemies' territory under such
a disrespectful bishop.
- Death of King Judhael of Domnonée. His son,
Haelioc takes the throne and attempts to
exterminate his brothers.
- Death of St. Kentigern, Bishop of Glasgow.
Death of King Hoel III of Brittany.
- King Aethelfrith of Bernicia invades Gwynedd in
order to route out his old enemy, King Edwin of
Deira. A united British force (Gwynedd, Powys,
Pengwern and Dumnonian warriors) clashes with his
army at the Battle of Chester. Kings Iago of
Gwynedd and Selyf Sarffgadau of Powys and Prince
Cadwal Cryshalog of Rhos are all killed but the
victor is unclear. The Battle of Bangor-is-Coed
follows in quick succession. King Bledric of
Dumnonia is killed in the fighting and 1000 monks
are massacred by the Northumbrians.
- King Cynegils of Wessex invades Dumnonia and
defeats the local army (possibly under a King
Clemen) at the Battle of Bindon.
- Proposed annexation of Powys by the Dogfeiling
Prince, Eluan Powys, with the help of his
brother, King Cynddylan of Pengwern,
"oppressor of the Cadelling". The sons
of the Cadelling king, Selyf Sarffgadau of Powys,
are later described as "landless oafs".
The Tarvin-Macefen boundary between Powys and
Mercia is delineated.
- King Edwin of Deira invades and conquers Elmet.
King Ceretic of Elmet is killed in the fighting.
- King Tewdrig Fendigaid of Glywysing & Gwent
abdicates in favour of his son, Meurig. King
Llywarch Hen is expelled from South Rheged,
probably by King Edwin of Deira. Llywarch flees
to Powys and becomes a famous bard.
- King Edwin of Deira is baptised by Prince Rhun
of North Rheged, according to the Historia
Brittonum. This may have been at the Royal Court
- King Cadfan of Gwynedd dies and is buried at
Llangadwaladr where his memorial stone can still
be seen. His son, King Cadwallon, succeeds to the
throne. St. Tysilio re-founds the Monastery of
- Death of King Haelioc of Domnonée. His
brother, Judicael, succeeds to the throne.
- The rivalry between King Cadwallon of Gwynedd
and King Edwin of Deira reaches a climax. Edwin
invades the Isle of Man and then Anglesey.
Cadwallon is defeated in battle and is besieged
on Puffin Island. He eventually flees to
- St. Paulinus meets Blecca, the Praefectus
Civitatis of Lincoln, and converts him to
- The West Saxons invade Gwent. King Meurig
defeats them, with the help of his aging father,
at the Battle of Pont-y-Saeson. Death of King
Neithon of Strathclyde.
- King Penda of Mercia besieges Exeter (possibly
held by King Clemen of Dumnonia). King Cadwallon
of Gwynedd lands nearby, from his Deiran imposed
exile in Brittany. He negotiates an alliance with
King Penda of Mercia and a united British and
Saxon force moves north to re-take Gwynedd. The
Deirans are defeated at the Battle of the Long
Mountain and Cadwallon chases them back to
Northumbria. The British ransack Northumbria and
bring the kingdom to its knees.
- King Idris of Meirionydd is killed fighting the
West Saxons on the Severn.
- The British, under King Cadwallon of Gwynedd,
meet the Northumbrians in the Battle of Hatfield
Chase. King Edwin of Deira is killed in the
fighting and Cadwallon is victorious. Cadwallon
is later besieged at York by Edwin's cousin and
successor, Osric. The former is again victorious.
- King Cadwallon of Gwynedd slays both Kings
Eanfrith of Bernicia and Osric of Deira rather
than negotiate peace with them. Eanfrith's
half-brother, Oswald succeeds to a united
Northumbria. He gathers a force and clashes with
King Cadwallon of Gwynedd at the Battle of
Heavenfield. Cadwallon is killed and Oswald
victorius. Cadafael Cadomedd usurps the Gwynedd
throne and ousts Prince Cadwaladr. Civil War
ensues in the kingdom. Death of the great poet,
King Llywarch Hen of South Rheged, supposedly
aged one hundred.
- King Judicael of Domnonée submits to the
overlordship of King Dagobert of the Franks. An
alliance is drawn up and the borders of the
Breton kingdom agreed.
- King Meurig of Glywysing & Gwent invades
Ergyng and re-unites the two kingdoms in the
right of his wife.
- King Judicael of Domnonée abdicates in order
to enter the Monastery of St. Meven at Gaël. His
brother, St. Judoc, declines the throne and flees
- Death of the retired King Judicael of
- Edinburgh is besieged by the Angles of
Northumbria. Princess Rhiainfelt, heiress of
North Rheged, marries Prince Oswiu of
Northumbria. Northumbria embraces North Rheged in
a peaceful takeover.
- Death of St. Tysilio, Abbot of Meifod.
- King Penda of Mercia commands a united British
and Mercian force against King Oswald of
Northumbria. The British contingent includes the
army of Kings Cadafael Cadomedd of Gwynedd, Eluan
of Powys and Cynddylan of Pengwern. Oswald is
killed, and possibly Eluan also. The Mercians
become dominant in Midland Britain. King Owen of
Strathclyde halts Scottish expansion by killing
King Domnal Brecc of Dalriada at the Battle of
- Gwynedd and much of Wales is in the grasp of
famine. Would be King Cadwaladr Fendigaid of
Gwynedd flees to Brittany. Civil War continues in
- King Cloten of Dyfed marries Princess Ceindrech
of Brycheiniog and unites the two kingdoms.
- King Cadafael Cadomedd of Gwynedd and his army
join King Penda of Mercia and march on the
Northumbrians. Penda clashes with King Oswiu at
the Battle of Winwaed, but Cadafael
withdraws before the battle begins.
- King Morfael of Pengwern (re-)takes Wall
- King of Oswiu of Northumbria invades Pengwern
and kills King Cynddylan in battle. His brother,
King Morfael, and the remains of the family flee
to Glastening. Mercians take control of Pengwern
and may have invaded Powys at this time.
- King Cenwalh and the Wessex Saxons make a push
against Dumnonia (possibly under a King Culmin).
They are victorious at the Battle of Penselwood
and the Dumnonia-Wessex border is set at the
River Parrett. Death of King Judicael of
- King Cenwalh of Wessex invades Dumnonia. He is
victorious at the Battle of Posbury. Saxon
settlers found Somerset in Eastern Dumnonia.
- Death of King Brochfael of Meirionydd
- Plague devastates Gwynedd. Probable death of
King Cadafael Cadomedd there. King Cadwaladr
Fendigaid of Gwynedd reasserts himself in his
kingdom by sending his son, Ifwr, from Brittany
to be regent. The Synod of Whitby determines that
the Northern British should comply with the
doctrines of Rome.
- The Second Battle of Badon
- Death of St. Judoc.
- St. Boniface educated at a Celtic Christian
Monastery in Exeter.
- The West Saxons "drove the British [of
Dumnonia] as far as the Sea" (possibly
- St. Cuthbert visits Carlisle. King Ecgfrith of
Northumbria marches his army north to engage the
Picts at the Battle of Nechtansmere. The
Scots and Strathclyde Britons probably join the
Picts in a thorough defeat of the Saxon forces.
The latter withdraw and lose much land south of
the Forth to King Dumnagual of Strathclyde in the
- King Cadwaladr Fendigaid of Gwynedd dies on a
pilgrimage to Rome.
- Death of King Alain II Hir of Brittany.
- King Gerren of Dumnonia receives a letter from
St. Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury, during his
attendance at a Church Synod in Wessex. He
insists that the Celtic Church of Dumnonia comply
with the doctrines of Rome, as agreed with the
Northern Celtic Church thirty-six years
previously at the Synod of Whitby.
- Death of King Daniel Dremrudd of Brittany.
- King Gerren of Dumnonia grants land at Maker to
Sherborne Abbey in an attempt to strengthen his
position in the disputed regions of Dorset.
- King Gerren of Dumnonia clashes with King Ine
of Wessex who manages to establish a fortress at
- King Seisyll of Ceredigion invades Dyfed and
conquers Ystrad Towi to create the greater
kingdom of Seisyllwg. A reduced Dyfed and
Brycheiniog both appear to have taken on the name
of Rhainwg: King Rhain's kingdom now sliced in
- Death of King Idwal Iwrch of Gwynedd
- Death of St.Winnoc, Abbot of Wormhout.
- Contact between the Welsh Church and Yvi of
Brittany is the last known link between the two
Celtic countries. After this, each nation goes
its own separate way.
- King Ine of Wessex attempts a takeover of
Dumnonia. His armies are crushed and have to
withdraw. Death of King Bili of Strathclyde. King
Teudebur succeeds to the throne.
- Civil War between King Tewdr of Brycheiniog and
a rival claimant to his throne, his cousin, Awst.
The latter is slain. Tewdr is persuaded to live
in peace with Awst's son, Elwystl.
- King Elisedd of Powys expels the Mercians from
- Death of King Rhain of Dyfed & Brycheiniog.
His kingdoms are divided between his two sons.
- Kings Aethelbald of Mercia and Ceolred of
Wessex join forces to attack Gwent and Powys.
- Construction of Wat's Dyke. The border between
Mercia and Powys is set here.
- The Strathclyde Britons under King Teudebur
defeat Prince Talorgen of the Picts at the Battle
of Mugdock. Decline of the power of King Angus I
of the Picts.
- Prince Elidyr ap Sandde moves the exiled Royal
House of South Rheged from Powys to the Isle of
Man. King Tewdr of Brycheiniog breaks the peace
with his cousin, Elwystl, and murders him.
- Death of King Teudebur of Strathclyde. His son,
Dumnagual, succeeds to the throne and promptly
loses Kyle to King Eadberht of Northumbria.
- Death of King Rhodri Molwynog of Gwynedd. His
sons, Kings Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel succeed to
- Kings Angus I of the the Picts and Eadberht of
Northumbria attack King Dumnagual of Strathclyde
at Dumbarton. However, Eadberht's entire force is
subsequently wiped out, probably by the Britons,
at the Battle of Newburgh-on-Tyne.
- The Battle of Hereford is fought probably
between the Mercians and the Kingdom of
Brycheiniog under King Nowy Hen. Death of King
Dumnagual of Strathclyde.
- Archbishop Elfoddw of Gwynedd persuades the
Welsh Church to accept the Roman dating of Easter
as agreed by the Northern British Church at the
Synod of Whitby.
- Construction of Offa's Dyke, the artificial
bank and ditch boundary between England and
Wales, is begun at the command of King Offa of
- Quarrels between Kings Cynan Tindaethwy and
Hywel leave the way open for Caradog ap Meirchion
(of the House of Rhos) to usurp the throne of
- Welsh forces, including those of Powys and
Dyfed, clash with the Mercians at the Battle of
Rhuddlan, when King Coenwulf tries to re-assert
his domination of North-East Wales. King Maredydd
of Dyfed is killed in the fighting. The Mercians
push on westward.
- King Caradog of Gwynedd is killed fighting the
Mercians of King Coenwulf in Snowdonia. Kings
Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel retake the throne.
- King Egbert of Wessex formally establishes
kingship over the people of Devon after a gradual
integration over many years. Dumnonia is reduced
to cover only the Cornish in Cerniw.
- Death of of King Arthwyr of Ceredigion.
- Death of Kings Rhain of Dyfed and Cadell of
- Death of Archbishop Elfoddw of Gwynedd.
- St. Davids is burnt.
- Death of King Owain of Dyfed. His son-in-law,
Hyfaidd takes the throne.
- Degannwy, the capital of Gwynedd, is struck by
lighning and burnt to the ground.
- King Hywel and Cynan Tindaethwy of Gwynedd
quarrel again and meet in battle. Hywel is
- Prince Gryffydd of Powys is slain through the
treachery of his brother Elisedd. King Cynan
Tindaethwy of Gwynedd invades Anglesey and
attacks his brother, Hywel. Hywel is victorious
and Cynan is driven from his shores.
- The Kingdom of Cerniw is raided by King Egbert
of Wessex and his Saxon armies from East to West.
- King Hywel of Gwynedd is again attacked by his
brother King Cynan on Anglesey. Cynan is killed.
The English successfully invade Rhufoniog and
also ravage the Snowdonia Mountains.
- King Coenwulf of Mercia raids Dyfed.
- King Coenwulf of Mercia dies in Basingwerk
while preparing for another assault on Powys.
- The Mercians invade Powys, but are beaten back
by King Cyngen. They also destroy the Gwynedd
- Death of King Rhodri of Gwynedd. The kingdom is
seized by his grand-nephew, Prince Merfyn Frych
of Man (and South Rheged). The men of Cerniw make
a push into Saxon Devon and the two armies clash
at the Battle of Galford. The Cornish are
- Nynniaw, Abbot of Bangor Fawr, compiles the
- Death of Bishop Sadyrnfyw of St. Davids.
- The British of Cerniw join forces with the
Vikings and attack Saxon Wessex. King Egbert
defeats them at the Battle of Hingston Down.
- Nobis becomes Bishop of St. Davids.
- Death of King Merfyn Frych of Gwynedd. His son,
Rhodri Mawr, succeeds to the throne.
- The armies of Brycheiniog and Gwent clash at
the Battle of Ffinnant. King Ithel of Gwent is
killed in the fighting.
- "Eliseg's Pillar" is erected in
Llantysilio-yn-Ial by King Cyngen of Powys as a
memorial to his great grandfather King Elisedd
(or Eliseg) and the power of the Powysian
dynasty. Bishop Censteg of Dingerein (Cerniw)
accepts the authority of Archbishop Ceolnoth of
- Mercia and Wessex attack Powys.
- King Cyngen of Powys dies on a pilgrimage to
Rome. His throne is seized by his nephew, King
Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd, and his sons expelled.
- Anglesey is ravaged by Dublin Vikings.
- King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd & Powys repels
a major Viking invasion of Wales and kills their
- Dumbarton, capital of King Artgal of
Strathclyde, is destroyed by King Olaf of Norse
Dublin and his Viking warriors.
- Death of King Gwrgon of Seisyllwg by drowning.
The throne is taken by his son-in-law, King
Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd & Powys. King Artgal
of Strathclyde is slain through the connivance of
King Constantine I of Alba and his Viking allies.
Artgal's son, Run, succeeds to the Strathclyde
- Death of Bishop Nobis of St. Davids.
- Death of Dungarth, the last King of Cerniw. He
was drowned during a hunting accident and buried
at St. Cleer.
- The Vikings invade Wales once more and King
Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd, Powys & Seisyllwg is
forced to flee to Ireland.
- King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd, Powys and
Seisyllwg returns to his kingdoms, but is killed
fighting the Mercians of King Ceolwulf II. His
kingdoms are divided amongst his three sons,
Anarawd, Merfyn and Cadell respectively. The
Vikings winter in Dyfed. Death of King Run of
Strathclyde. His son, Eochaid, succeeds to the
throne and allies himself with his mother's
cousin, King Giric of Alba. The two rule all
Scotland together as joint-monarchs.
- King Anarawd of Gwynedd initiates a revenge
attack on the Mercian armies and defeats them on
the River Conwy.
- King Anarawd of Gwynedd and his brothers begin
extensive military campaigns to quell resistance
in Powys and Seisyllwg.
- Asser, a relative of Nobis, Bishop of St.
Davids, is summoned to the court of King Alfred
of England. He agrees to spend six months of the
year in the King's service. Asser helps to
enhance the literary status of the English Court
and also to negotiate the recognition of Alfred
as overlord of the South Welsh Kings.
- Kings Hyfaidd of Dyfed, Elisedd of Brycheiniog
and Hywel of Glywysing are harassed by the armies
of King Anarawd of Gwynedd. They seek the
protection of King Alfred of England and submit
to his overlordship. Anarawd seeks an alliance
with the Norse Kings of York.
- Kings Eochaid and Giric of Alba, Strathclyde
& the Picts are deposed by Viking invaders.
The former's cousin takes the throne as King
Donald II. The end of independent Strathclyde
- King Donald II of Alba expels the British
aristorcracy of Strathclyde. They flee south to
- Death of King Hyfaidd of Dyfed.
- Asser, the Welshman, is made Bishop of
- King Anarawd of Gwynedd's shaky alliance with
the Vikings collapses. His kingdom is ravaged by
the Norsemen. Anarawd is forced to ask for help
from King Alfred of England and submits to his
overlordship. Alfred imposes oppressive terms and
forces Anarawd to confirmation in the Christian
Church with Alfred as godfather. Bishop Asser of
Sherborne, writes his "Life of King
- King Anarawd of Gwynedd is supplied with
English troops to assist in his reconquest of
Seisyllwg. He is successful and his brother, King
Cadell, is finally able to take his rightful
place on the Seisyllwg throne.
- Brycheiniog and Gwent are ravaged by Haesten
and his Viking pirate army.
- King Tewdr of Brycheiniog establishes his court
on a crannog in the middle of Llangorse Lake.
- The Norsemen are expelled from Dublin. They
attempt to settle in Seisyllwg, but are driven
off by Prince Clydog. They move on and settle in
- The Vikings raid Anglesey.
- Marriage of Prince Hywel Dda of Seisyllwg to
Princess Elen of Dyfed. Death of the latter's
father, King Llywarch. The throne of Dyfed is
claimed by Llywarch's brother, Rhodri, but he is
probably forced to flee from Hywel's armies.
- Rhodri, nominally King of Dyfed, is caught and
executed, at Arwystli, probably by his neice's
husband, Hywel Dda. Hywel claims the throne of
- Death of Asser, the Welsh Bishop of Sherborne.
- Death of King Cadell of Seisyllwg. His son,
King Hywel Dda unites Seisyllwg and Dyfed to form
the Kingdom of Deheubarth.
- The Vikings harry the Welsh Coast and move up
the Severn. They capture Bishop Cyfeilliog of
Ergyng, but are driven out by Saxon levies from
Hereford and Gloucester.
- Death of King Anarawd of Gwynedd. English
raiders attack the court of King Tewdr of
Brycheiniog at Llangorse and make off with the
Queen and thirty-three of her courtiers.
- Brycheiniog is ravaged by the armies of Lady
Aethelflaed of the Mercians in revenge for the
killing of the, now unknown, Abbot Ecgberht.
- King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and King Hywel Dda
and Prince Clydog of Deheubarth submit to the
overlordship of King Edward the Elder of England.
The Vikings raid Anglesey.
- Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Owain of
Glywysing & Gwent submit to the overlordship
of King Athelstan of England at Hereford. The
border between England and Wales is set at the
- King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Gwynedd &
Powys begins the codification of Welsh customary
- King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth goes on a
pilgrimage to Rome.
- King Morgan Hen of Glywysing & Gwent
submits to the overlordship of King Athelstan of
England and attends his court with Kings Hywel
Dda of Deheubarth and Idwal Foel of Gwynedd.
- King Tewdr of Brycheiniog attends the court of
King Athelstan of England and signs English Land
Charters. Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Idwal
Foel of Gwynedd and Morgan Mwynfawr of Morgannwg
are compelled to accompany Athelstan on his
campaign against King Constantine II of the
- King Athelstan of England defeats a combined
Northern Army under Kings Olaf of Dublin,
Constantine II of Scots and Owain of Strathclyde
at the Battle of Brunanbury. Though none of the
British monarchs appear to have taken part, the
people of Strathclyde were a major contingent
under their Scottish King. The battle finally
ends all British hope of driving the Saxons from
- King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd distances himself
from his English overlord. The British begin to
use the term "Cyrmry" to speak of
EBK 410 AD-598 AD
Saxon 597 AD-687 AD
Saxon 688 AD-801 AD
Saxon 802 AD-898 AD
Saxon 899 AD-977 AD
Copyright ©1996, 1997, 1998 Britannia Internet Magazine.
Design by Unica Multimedia