- Emperor Honorius of Rome tells Britain to
attend to its own affairs. Zosmius reports Roman
officials expelled and native government
- Governor Owain Finddu of Glywysing is
assassinated in Gwynedd. Irish incursions into
Gwynedd, Powys, Garth Madrun, Dyfed & the
- Capture, at Arles, of Constatine, last Emperor
of Britain. He was executed at Ravenna soon
- Pelagian heresy said to have begun, by Prosper
(Tiro) of Aquitaine in his "Chronicle".
- Pelagian heresy outlawed in Rome (418) but, in
Britain, supposedly enjoys much support from
"pro-Celtic" faction. Traditionalists
(pro-Romans) support Roman church. During this
time, according to Prosper, Britain is ruled by
- Death of Coel Hen, probably the last Roman Dux
Brittanniarum. The lands of his office in
Northern Britain are divided between his
descendants and become petty kingdoms of the
"Gwyr y Gogledd".
- Supposed death of King Gradlon Mawr of
Brittany. Probable division of Brittany into
sub-kingdoms of Cornouaille and Domnonée.
- Birth of St. Patrick in Banna Venta Burniae,
thought to be near Birdoswald.
- Vortigern usurps Imperial power in Britain,
possibly as High-King.
- Cunedda Wledig and his retinue are moved south
from Manau Gododdin to Gwynedd in order to expel
the invading Irish.
- King Conomor flourishes in Dumnonia, probably
from his capital at Castle Dore.
- Vortigern invites a number of Germanic warriors
to aid him in consolidating his position in
Britain according to the Historia Brittonum. This
appears to have been an early use of German
mercenaries, who probably settled in the
- At the request of Palladius, a British deacon,
Pope Celestine I dispatches Bishops Germanus of
Auxerre and Lupus of Troyes to Britain to combat
Pelagian heresy. While in Britain, Germanus, a
former military man, leads Britons to
"Hallelujah" victory on the Welsh
border. St. Cadfan founds the Monastery of
- St. Patrick is captured by pirates and taken to
Ireland as a slave.
- Tibatto leads Armorican movement for
independence from Roman Gaul.
- War breaks out between the Irish settlers in
Garth Madrun and Powys. King Anlach of Garth
Madrun is defeated and forced to send his son,
Brychan, as a hostage to the Powysian Court.
- Ambrosius Aurelianus appears as leader of the
Pro-Roman faction in Britain (traditionally
returning from exile in Brittany). Vortigern's
apparent relative, Vitalinus (Guitolinus), fights
against Ambrosius at the Battle of Wallop. The
latter is probably victorious and is "given
all the kingdoms of the western side of
- The Irish chieftain, Triffyn Farfog takes the
Kingdom of Dyfed by marrying the daughter of King
- St. Patrick escapes from his captors and
returns to Britain.
- Period of Civil War and famine in Britain,
caused by ruling council's weakness and inability
to deal with Pictish invasions; situation
aggravated by tensions between Pelagian/Roman
factions. Vacated towns and cities in ruin.
Migration of pro-Roman citizens toward west.
Country beginning to be divided, geographically,
along factional lines. King Glywys of Glywysing
flourishes in Glywysing.
- King Brychan flourishes in Brycheiniog. His
three wives give birth to many saintly children
who evangelize Dumnonia.
- Gallic Chronicle records, prematurely, that
"Britain, abandoned by the Romans, passed
into the power of the Saxons."
- Death of King Constantine Corneu of Dumnonia.
His kingdom was divided between his two sons as
Dumnonia and Cerniw.
- Britons (probably the pro-Roman party) appeal
to Aetius, Roman governor of Gaul, for military
assistance in their struggle against the Picts
and the Irish/Scots. No help could be sent, at
this time, as Aetius had his hands full with
Attila the Hun.
- Vortigern authorizes the use of Saxon
mercenaries, known as foederati, for the defence
of the northern parts against barbarian attack
and to guard against further Irish incursions.
The Saxons are given a little land in
- Second visit of St. Germanus (this time
accompanied by Severus, Bishop of Trier) to
Britain. Was this visit spiritually motivated, to
combat a revived Pelagian threat or was Germanus
sent in Aetius' stead, to do whatever he could to
help the desperate Britons? Vortigern is accused
of incest. Battle of Aylesford (Kent) in which
the rebellious sons of Vortigern, Vortimer and
Cadeyrn, defeat Hengest for the first time.
Cadeyrn is killed in the fighting. Germanus
expells the Irish from Powys and restores
Cadeyrn's son, Cadell Ddernllwg, to the throne.
- Britons, aroused to heroic effort,
"inflicted a massacre" on their
enemies, the Picts and Irish, and were left in
peace, for a brief time. Could this heroic effort
have been led, again, by St. Germanus?
- Civil war and plague ravage Britain.
- In the first year of Marcian and Valentinian,
Hengest arrives on shores of Britain with "3
keels" of warriors, and are welcomed by
Vortigern. This event is known in Latin as the
"Adventus Saxonum," the coming of the
- Increasing Saxon settlement in Britain.
Vortigern marries Hengest's daughter, Rowenna,
and supposedly offers the Jutish leader the
kingdom of Kent. Hengest invites his son, Octha,
from Germany with "16 keels" of
warriors, who occupy the northern lands, to
defend against the Picts. Picts never heard from,
- Raids on British towns and cities becoming more
frequent. Increasing Saxon unrest.
- Prince Vortimer apparently rebels against the
pro-Saxon policies of his father, Vortigern, and
fights Hengest at the Battle of Crayford. Hengest
is victorious and the British army flees back to
- The indecisve Battle of Aylesford between
Hengest's Saxons and the British under Prince
Vortimer. Prince Cadeyrn of Britain and King
Horsa of Kent are killed in the fighting.
- St. Patrick leaves Britain once more to
evangelise Ireland. Geoffrey of Monmouth tells us
of a probably fictitious, but entirely
believable, event in which Saxons massacre 300
leading British noblemen at a phony
- Saxon uprising in full-swing. Hengest finally
conquers Kent, in south-eastern Britain.
- Full-scale migration of British aristocrats and
city-dwellers across the English Channel to
Armorica, in north-western Gaul (the "second
migration"). British contingent led by
Riothamus (perhaps a title, not a name).
- Vortigern is burnt to death while being
besieged by Ambrosius Aurelianus at Ganarew.
- Ambrosius Aurelianus of pro-Roman faction takes
full control of Britain; leads Britons in years
of back-and-forth fighting with Saxons. British
strategy seems to have been to allow Saxon
landings and to then contain them there.
- Supposed death of the legendary King Aldrien of
- Battle of Wippedsfleet (or Richborough),
in which the Britons defeat the Saxons, but with
great slaughter on both sides. The latter are
confined to the Isle of Thanet and there is a
respite from fighting "for a long
- 'King' Arthur probably born around this time.
Birth of St. Dyfrig also.
- Period of minimal Saxon activity.
Re-fortification of ancient hillforts and
construction of the Wansdyke possibly takes place
during this time.
- Roman emperor, Anthemius, appeals to Britons
for military help against the Visigoths. Reliable
accounts by Sidonius Apolonaris and Jordanes name
the leader of the 12,000 man Breton force,
Riothamus. The bulk of the British force was
wiped out in battle against Euric, the Visigothic
king, and the survivors, including Riothamus,
vanished and were never heard from, again.
- The army of King Ceretic of Strathclyde raids
the Irish Coast and carries off some of St.
Patrick's new flock and sells them into slavery.
The king receives a written repremand from the
- Men of Kent, under Hengest, move westward,
driving Britons back before them "as one
- Saxon chieftain, Aelle, lands on Sussex coast
with his sons. Britons engage him upon landing
but his superior force besieges them at Pevensey
and drives them into the Weald. Over next nine
years, Saxon coastal holdings are gradually
expanded in Sussex.
- King Erbin of Dumnonia abdicates in favour of
his son, King Gerren Llygesoc. Death of King
Glywys of Glywysing. His kingdom is divided into
Gwynllwg, Penychen, Gorfynedd, Edeligion and
- Birth of St. Samson.
- Period of Arthur's "twelve battles"
during which he gains reputation for
- Aelle and his sons overreach their normal
territory and are engaged by Britons at battle of
Mercredesburne. Battle is bloody, but
indecisive, and ends with both sides pledging
- Birth of St. David.
- Hengest dies. His son, Aesc, takes over and
rules for 34 years. Death of Einion Yrth of
Gwynedd. His kingdom is divided into Gwynedd and
Rhos. St. Cybi Felyn is born in Callington in
- Death of St. Patrick, in Glastonbury according
to local legend. Down Patrick seems more likely.
- The Germanic King Cerdic and his son, Cynric,
land somewhere on the south coast, probably near
the Hampshire-Dorset border. Their followers
establish the beginnings of the Kingdom of
Wessex. King Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg carries off
Princess Gwladys of Brycheiniog. War between the
two kingdoms narrowly avoided by the intercession
of the legendary Arthur. The couple marry.
- The Siege of Mount Badon. Britons, under the
command of the "war leader" Arthur,
defeat the Saxons, under King Esla of Bernicia
and possibly Cerdic of Wessex.
- Following the victory at Mt. Badon, the Saxon
advance is halted with the invaders returning to
their own enclaves. A generation of peace ensues.
Corrupt leadership, more civil turmoil, public
forgetfulness and individual apathy further erode
Romano-British culture over next fifty years,
making Britain ripe for final Saxon
- Birth of St. Cadog. Death of King Erbin of
- King Cadwallon Lawhir expels the Irish from
- Death of St. Paulinus.
- King Cerdic of Wessex begins to move inland and
defeats British king, Nudd-Lludd (Natanleod), at
the Battle of Netley.
- The Battle of Llongborth (possibly
Langport or Portsmouth), where King Gerren
Llyngesoc of Dumnonia, was killed. Prince Rivod
of Brittany murders his brother, King Maeliaw,
and usurps the Breton throne. Many of the Breton
Royal family flee to Britain, including Prince
Budic who seeks refuge at the court of King
Aircol Lawhir in Dyfed.
- Death of Aelle. Kingdom of Sussex passed to his
son, Cissa and his descendents, but over time,
diminished into insignificance.
- Death of King Cadwallon Lawhir of Gwynedd. His
son, Maelgwn takes the throne, murders his uncle,
probably King Owain Danwyn of Rhos, and re-unites
the two kingdoms.
- King Maelgwn flourishes in Gwynedd. Invades
Dyfed and generally tries to assert himself as
High-King of Britain.
- Kingdom of the West Saxons (Wessex) founded
with Cerdic its first ruler.
- King Pabo Post Prydain of the Pennines
abdictaes his throne and divides the kingdom
between his two sons. He retires, as a hermit, to
Anglesey. Death of King Riwal Mawr Marchou of
Domnonée. King Budic II of Brittany returns to
Cornouaille to claim the Breton throne.
- St. Samson is consecrated a bishop by St.
Dyfrig, Archbishop of Glywysing & Gwent.
- Death of King Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg. Gwnllywg
and Penychen united under his son, St. Cadog
- St. Samson founds the Monastery of Dol and
becomes its first Abbot.
- King & Saint Cadog of Glywysing abdicates
in favour of King Meurig of Gwent, who is joined
in marriage to Cadog's aunt. Banishment of
Princess Thaney of Gododdin. Birth of her son,
- Saint Pabo Post Prydain, ex-King of the
Pennines dies at Llanbabo. The British of the
Isle of Wight are defeated by King Cerdic of
Wessex at the Battle of Carisbrooke.
- Kings Sawyl Penuchel of the Southern Pennines
is expelled from his kingdom (enemy uncertain)
and flees to Powys. Death of King Meirchion Gul
of Rheged. The kingdom is divided into North and
South. Death of St. Illtud, Abbot of Llanilltud
- Battle of Camlann, according to Annales
Cambriae. Fought between the forces of Arthur and
Mordred. Death (or unspecified other demise) of
Arthur (according to Geoffrey of Monmouth). Saint
and King Constantine ruling in Dumnonia.
- King Cynlas Goch of Rhos abandons his wife in
favour of his sister-in-law, a nun who he drags
from her convent. Civil War between Cynlas and
his cousin, King Maelgwn of Gwynedd. Maelgwn
enters a monastery, but soon returns to secular
life and murders his nephew in order to marry his
widow! Civil War also in Powys due to the tyranny
of King Cyngen Glodrydd.
- King Jonas of Domnonée is murdered by King
Cono-Mark of Cerniw and Poher. Cono-Mark marries
Jonas' widow and rules Domnonée.
- Probable writing of Gildas' "De Excidio
Britanniae." King Caradog Freichfras of
Gwent gives Caerwent to St. Tathyw and moves the
Royal court to Portskewett
- Death of the joint-Kings Budic II and his son
Hoel I Mawr of Brittany. King Tewdwr Mawr
succeeds to the throne, but is quickly ousted
from Cornouaille by King Macliau of the
Vannetais. Tewdwr flees to Cerniw and sets
himself up as King of the Penwith region.
- The Synod of Brefi is held at Llandewi Brefi to
condemn the Pelagian heresy. St. Dyfrig,
Archbishop of South Wales resigns his position in
favour of St. David. David moves the Archdiocese
from Caerleon to St. Davids. Death of St. Dyfrig.
He is succeeded as Bishop of Glywysing &
Gwent by St. Teilo. Prince Judwal of Domnonée
flees from his murderous step-father to the court
of King Childebert of the Franks.
- St. Gildas returns to Brittany with St. Cadog.
- The King of Bryneich is expelled from his
fortress of Bamburgh by King Ida of Bernicia.
Apparent death of the, probably joint-king, Hoel
II Fychan of Brittany.
- King Cono-Mark of Cerniw, Poher and Domnonée
marries Princess Triphine of Broërec.
- "Yellow" Plague hits British
territories, causing many deaths, including King
Maelgwn of Gwynedd. Ireland also affected.
Saxons, for whatever reason, are unaffected by
- Death of St. Ninian, Bishop of Whithorn. Birth
of St. Tremeur. Murder of his mother, Triphine,
by his father, King Cono-Mark of Cerniw, Poher
and Domnonée. Prince Judwal of Domnonée retakes
his throne. Cono-Mark flees to Cornwall. The
semi-legendary Kingdom of Lyonesse possibly
inundated by the sea.
- King Cynric of Wessex lays siege to the British
at Old Sarum and put them to flight.
- St. Cybi Felyn, Abbot of Holyhead, dies at his
monastery. Murder of St. Tremeur. Death of his
father, King Cono-Mark of Cerniw and Poher.
- Death of King Erb of Gwent. The kingdom is
divided into Gwent and Ergyng.
- King Cynric of Wessex lays siege to the British
at Barbury Castle and is victorious.
- Broërec is attacked by King Childebert of the
Franks. King Canao II leads resistance.
- Prince Elidyr of Strathclyde invades Gwynedd in
right of his wife. He tries to expel his
brother-in-law, King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd, at the
Battle of the Cadnant Brook, but is killed in the
- Death of St. Tugdual, Bishop of Tréguier.
- St. Cadog settles in Weedon in Calchfynedd and
is made Bishop there. St. Samson attends the
Council of Paris and witnesses several Royal
- King Riderch Hael of Strathclyde mounts an
unsuccessful revenge attack on King Rhun Hir of
Gwynedd. Rhun marches on Strathclyde and
reinforces the armies of his half-brother,
Brudei, in Pictland. Death of St. Samson.
- St. David holds the Synod of Victoria to
denounce the Pelagian heresy once more.
- Death of St. Gildas.
- The Northern British Alliance is forged between
the kingdoms of North Rheged, Strathclyde,
Bryneich and Elmet. They fight the Northumbrians
at the Battles of Gwen Ystrad and the Cells of
- King Cuthwulf of Wessex invades Midland Britain
and defeats the British, probably under the King
of Calchfynedd, at the Battle of Bedford.
- Kings Peredyr and Gwrgi of Ebrauc ally
themselves with Kings Dunaut Bwr of the Northern
Pennines and Riderch Hael of Strathclyde. They
march north to claim the fort at Caerlaverock
from King Gwendoleu of Caer-Gwendoleu. The latter
was killed in the Battle of Arthuret and his
bard, Myrddin, is forced to flee into the
- Prince Owein of North Rheged kills King
Theodoric of Bernicia at the Battle of Leeming
- Wessex invades the lower Severn Valley. Kings
Ffernfael of Caer-Baddan, Cyndyddam of Caer-Ceri
and Cynfael of Caer-Gloui are killed at the
Battle of Dyrham. Wessex overuns the Cirencester
area. King Tewdwr Mawr of Brittany returns to
Cornouaille, reclaims his throne and kills King
Macliau of the Vannetais in battle.
- The army of Kings Peredyr and Gwrgi of Ebrauc
march north to fight the Anglians of Bernicia.
Both are killed by King Adda's forces at Caer
Greu. The Deirans rise up, under King Aelle, and
move on the City of Ebrauc. King Peredyr's son is
forced to flee the Kingdom. St. Cadog is martyred
in Calchfynedd by invading Mercians.
- Death of St. Deiniol Gwyn, Bishop of Bangor
Fawr. The British are victorious over King
Ceawlin of Wessex at the Battle of Fethanleigh
and kill his brother, Cuthwine. Ceawlin ravages
the surrounding countryside in revenge.
- Death of King Alain I of Brittany.
- Death of King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd. Death of
King Judwal of Domnonée.
- King Edwin of Deira is ousted from his Kingdom
by the Bernicians and seeks refuge at the court
of King Iago of Gwynedd.
- Death of Saint and King Constantine of
Dumnonia. Death of St. David, Archbishop of St.
- The Siege of Lindisfarne. The Northern British
Alliance (North Rheged, Strathclyde, Bryneich and
Elmet) lays siege to King Hussa of Bernicia and
almost exterminates the Northumbrians from
Northern Britain. King Urien of North Rheged is
assassinated at the behest of his jealous ally
King Morcant Bulc of Bryneich. The Northumbrians
recover while internal squabbles tear the British
- King Dunaut Bwr of the Northern Pennines mounts
an invasion of North Rheged, but is repulsed by
its King, Owein, and his brother, Prince Pasgen.
Prince Elffin of North Rheged is simultaneously
attacked by King Gwallawc Marchawc Trin of Elmet.
- King Morcant Bulc of Bryneich invades North
Rheged and kills King Owein in battle. Prince
Pasgen of North Rheged flees to the Gower
Peninsula. A greatly diminished North Rheged
probably continues under the rule of their
- The aging King Dunaut Bwr of the Northern
Pennines dies fighting off a Bernician invasion.
His kingdom is overrun and his family flee to
join his grandson in Gwynedd.
- Kings Mynyddog Mwynfawr of Din-Eidyn &
Cynan of Gododdin ride south to fight Saxon
Bernicia against enormous odds at the Battle of
Catterick. The British are victorious, though
King Gerren of Dumnonia is killed in the
fighting. He is buried at Dingerein. Probable
expansion of North Rheged to fill the vacuum left
in North Yorkshire.
EBK 599 AD-937 AD
The Arthurian Legend
Saxon 597 AD-687 AD
Copyright ©1996, 1997, 1998 Britannia Internet Magazine.
Design by Unica Multimedia