843-70
A.D. 843 . This year King Ethelwulf fought at Charmouth with
thirty-five ship's-crews, and the Danes remained masters of the
place. The Emperor Louis died this year.

A.D. 845 . This year Alderman Eanwulf, with the men of
Somersetshire, and Bishop Ealstan, and Alderman Osric, with the
men of Dorsetshire, fought at the mouth of the Parret with the
Danish army; and there, after making a great slaughter, obtained
the victory.

A.D. 851 . This year Alderman Ceorl, with the men of Devonshire,
fought the heathen army at Wemburg, and after making great
slaughter obtained the victory. The same year King Athelstan and
Alderman Elchere fought in their ships, and slew a large army at
Sandwich in Kent, taking nine ships and dispersing the rest. The
heathens now for the first time remained over winter in the Isle
of Thanet. The same year came three hundred and fifty ships into
the mouth of the Thames; the crew of which went upon land, and
stormed Canterbury and London; putting to flight Bertulf, king of
the Mercians, with his army; and then marched southward over the
Thames into Surrey. Here Ethelwulf and his son Ethelbald, at the
head of the West-Saxon army, fought with them at Ockley, and made
the greatest slaughter of the heathen army that we have ever
heard reported to this present day. There also they obtained the
victory.

A.D. 852 . About this time Abbot Ceolred of Medhamsted, with the
concurrence of the monks, let to hand the land of Sempringham to
Wulfred, with the provision, that after his demise the said land
should revert to the monastery; that Wulfred should give the land
of Sleaford to Meohamsted, and should send each year into the
monastery sixty loads of wood, twelve loads of coal, six loads of
peat, two tuns full of fine ale, two neats' carcases, six hundred
loaves, and ten kilderkins of Welsh ale; one horse also each
year, and thirty shillings, and one night's entertainment. This
agreement was made in the presence of King Burhred. Archbishop
Ceolnoth, Bishops Tunbert, Kenred, Aldhun, and Bertred; Abbots
Witred and Weftherd, Aldermen Ethelherd and Hunbert, and many
others.

A.D. 853 . This year Burhred, King of Mercia, with his council,
besought King Ethelwulf to assist him to subdue North-Wales. He
did so; and with an army marched over Mercia into North-Wales,
and made all the inhabitants subject to him. The same year King
Ethelwulf sent his son Alfred to Rome; and Leo, who was then
pope, consecrated him king, and adopted him as his spiritual son.
The same year also Elchere with the men of Kent, and Huda with
the men of Surrey, fought in the Isle of Thanet with the heathen
army, and soon obtained the victory; but there were many men
slain and drowned on either hand, and both the aldermen killed.
Burhred, the Mercian king, about this time received in marriage
the daughter of Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons.

A.D. 854 . This year the heathen men (34) for the first time
remained over winter in the Isle of Shepey. The same year King
Ethelwulf registered a TENTH of his land over all his kingdom for
the honour of God and for his own everlasting salvation. The
same year also he went to Rome with great pomp, and was resident
there a twelvemonth. Then he returned homeward; and Charles,
king of the Franks, gave him his daughter, whose name was Judith,
to be his queen. After this he came to his people, and they were
fain to receive him; but about two years after his residence
among the Franks he died; and his body lies at Winchester. He
reigned eighteen years and a half. And Ethelwulf was the son of
Egbert, Egbert of Ealhmund, Ealhmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa,
Eoppa of Ingild; Ingild was the brother of Ina, king of the
West-Saxons, who held that kingdom thirty-seven winters, and
afterwards went to St. Peter, where he died. And they were the
sons of Cenred, Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cutha, Cutha of
Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Creoda,
Creoda of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis,
Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawine, Freawine of Frithugar, Frithugar
of Brond, Brond of Balday, Balday of Woden, Woden of Frithuwald,
Frithuwald of Freawine, Freawine of Frithuwualf, Frithuwulf of
Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Great, Great of Taetwa, Taetwa
of Beaw, Beaw of Sceldwa, Sceldwa of Heremod, Heremod of Itermon,
Itermon of Hathra, Hathra of Hwala, Hwala of Bedwig, Bedwig of
Sceaf; that is, the son of Noah, who was born in Noah's ark:
Laznech, Methusalem, Enoh, Jared, Malalahel, Cainion, Enos, Seth,
Adam the first man, and our Father, that is, Christ. Amen. Then
two sons of Ethelwulf succeeded to the kingdom; Ethelbald to
Wessex, and Ethelbert to Kent, Essex, Surrey, and Sussex.
Ethelbald reigned five years. Alfred, his third son, Ethelwulf
had sent to Rome; and when the pope heard say that he was dead,
he consecrated Alfred king, and held him under spiritual hands,
as his father Ethelwulf had desired, and for which purpose he had
sent him thither.

((A.D. 855 . And on his return homewards he took to (wife) the
daughter of Charles, king of the French, whose name was Judith,
and he came home safe. And then in about two years he died, and
his body lies at Winchester: and he reigned eighteen years and a
half, and he was the son of Egbert. And then his two sons
succeeded to the kingdom; Ethelbald to the kingdom of the
West-Saxons, and Ethelbert to the kingdom of the Kentish-men, and
of the East-Saxons, and of Surrey, and of the South-Saxons. And
he reigned five years.))

A.D. 860 . This year died King Ethelbald, and his body lies at
Sherborn. Ethelbert his brother then succeeded to the whole
kingdom, and held it in good order and great tranquillity. In
his days came a large naval force up into the country, and
stormed Winchester. But Alderman Osric, with the command of
Hampshire, and Alderman Ethelwulf, with the command of Berkshire,
fought against the enemy, and putting them to flight, made
themselves masters of the field of battle. The said Ethelbert
reigned five years, and his body lies at Sherborn.

A.D. 861 . This year died St. Swithun, bishop.

A.D. 865 . This year sat the heathen army in the isle of Thanet,
and made peace with the men of Kent, who promised money
therewith; but under the security of peace, and the promise of
money, the army in the night stole up the country, and overran
all Kent eastward.

A.D. 866 . This year Ethered, (35) brother of Ethelbert, took to
the West-Saxon government; and the same year came a large heathen
army into England, and fixed their winter-quarters in East-
Anglia, where they were soon horsed; and the inhabitants made
peace with them.

A.D. 867 . This year the army went from the East-Angles over the
mouth of the Humber to the Northumbrians, as far as York. And
there was much dissension in that nation among themselves; they
had deposed their king Osbert, and had admitted Aella, who had no
natural claim. Late in the year, however, they returned to their
allegiance, and they were now fighting against the common enemy;
having collected a vast force, with which they fought the army at
York; and breaking open the town, some of them entered in. Then
was there an immense slaughter of the Northumbrians, some within
and some without; and both the kings were slain on the spot. The
survivors made peace with the army. The same year died Bishop
Ealstan, who had the bishopric of Sherborn fifty winters, and his
body lies in the town.

A.D. 868 . This year the same army went into Mercia to
Nottingham, and there fixed their winter-quarters; and Burhred,
king of the Mercians, with his council, besought Ethered, king of
the West-Saxons, and Alfred, his brother; that they would assist
them in fighting against the army. And they went with the West-
Saxon army into Mercia as far as Nottingham, and there meeting
the army on the works, they beset them within. But there was no
heavy fight; for the Mercians made peace with the army.

A.D. 869 . This year the army went back to York, and sat there a
year.

A.D. 870 . This year the army rode over Mercia into East-Anglia,
and there fixed their winter-quarters at Thetford. And in the
winter King Edmund fought with them; but the Danes gained the
victory, and slew the king; whereupon they overran all that land,
and destroyed all the monasteries to which they came. The names
of the leaders who slew the king were Hingwar and Hubba. At the
same time came they to Medhamsted, burning and breaking, and
slaying abbot and monks, and all that they there found. They
made such havoc there, that a monastery, which was before full
rich, was now reduced to nothing. The same year died Archbishop
Ceolnoth; and Ethered, Bishop of Witshire, was chosen Archbishop
of Canterbury.


Notes:

(34) i.e. the Danes; or, as they are sometimes called, Northmen,
which is a general term including all those numerous tribes
that issued at different times from the north of Europe,
whether Danes, Norwegians, Sweons, Jutes, or Goths, etc.;
who were all in a state of paganism at this time.
((35) Aetheredus, -- Asser, Ethelwerd, etc. We have therefore
adopted this orthography.

Chronicle Years: 801-42
Chronicle Years: 871-78


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