A.D. 1073 . This year led King William an army, English and
French, over sea, and won the district of Maine; which the
English very much injured by destroying the vineyards, burning
the towns, and spoiling the land. But they subdued it all into
the hand of King William, and afterwards returned home to
A.D. 1074 . This year King William went over sea to Normandy; and
child Edgar came from Flanders into Scotland on St. Grimbald's
mass-day; where King Malcolm and his sister Margaret received him
with much pomp. At the same time sent Philip, the King of
France, a letter to him, bidding him to come to him, and he would
give him the castle of Montreuil; that he might afterwards daily
annoy his enemies. What then? King Malcolm and his sister
Margaret gave him and his men great presents, and many treasures;
in skins ornamented with purple, in pelisses made of martin-
skins, of grey-skins, and of ermine-skins, in palls, and in
vessels of gold and silver; and conducted him and his crew with
great pomp from his territory. But in their voyage evil befel
them; for when they were out at sea, there came upon them such
rough weather, and the stormy sea and the strong wind drove them
so violently on the shore, that all their ships burst, and they
also themselves came with difficulty to the land. Their treasure
was nearly all lost, and some of his men also were taken by the
French; but he himself and his best men returned again to
Scotland, some roughly travelling on foot, and some miserably
mounted. Then King Malcolm advised him to send to King William
over sea, to request his friendship, which he did; and the king
gave it him, and sent after him. Again, therefore, King Malcolm
and his sister gave him and all his men numberless treasures, and
again conducted him very magnificently from their territory. The
sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and went all the way
with him; ordering meat and fodder to be found for him at every
castle to which they came, until they came over sea to the king.
Then King William received him with much pomp; and he was there
afterwards in his court, enjoying such rights as he confirmed to
him by law.
A.D. 1075 . This year King William gave Earl Ralph the daughter
of William Fitz-Osborne to wife. This same Ralph was British on
his mother's side; but his father, whose name was also Ralph, was
English; and born in Norfolk. The king therefore gave his son
the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; and he then led the bride to
There was that bride-aleThere was Earl Roger, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops, and abbots;
who there resolved, that they would drive the king out of the
realm of England. But it was soon told the king in Normandy how
it was determined. It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph who were the
authors of that plot; and who enticed the Britons to them, and
sent eastward to Denmark after a fleet to assist them. Roger
went westward to his earldom, and collected his people there, to
the king's annoyance, as he thought; but it was to the great
disadvantage of himself. He was however prevented. Ralph also
in his earldom would go forth with his people; but the castlemen
that were in England and also the people of the land, came
against him, and prevented him from doing anything. He escaped
however to the ships at Norwich. (97) And his wife was in the
castle; which she held until peace was made with her; when she
went out of England, with all her men who wished to join her.
The king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger, his
relative, and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof went over
sea, and bewrayed himself; but he asked forgiveness, and
proffered gifts of ransom. The king, however, let him off
lightly, until he (98) came to England; when he had him seized.
Soon after that came east from Denmark two hundred ships; wherein
were two captains, Cnute Swainson, and Earl Hacco; but they durst
not maintain a fight with King William. They went rather to
York, and broke into St. Peter's minster, and took therein much
treasure, and so went away. They made for Flanders over sea; but
they all perished who were privy to that design; that was, the
son of Earl Hacco, and many others with him. This year died the
Lady Edgitha, who was the relict of King Edward, seven nights
before Christmas, at Winchester; and the king caused her to be
brought to Westminster with great pomp; and he laid her with King
Edward, her lord. And the king was then at Westminster, at
midwinter; where all the Britons were condemned who were at the
bride-ale at Norwich. Some were punished with blindness; some
were driven from the land; and some were towed to Scandinavia.
So were the traitors of King William subdued.
A.D. 1076 . This year died Sweyne, King of Denmark; and Harold
his son took to the kingdom. And the king gave the abbacy of
Westminster to Abbot Vitalis, who had been Abbot of Bernay. This
year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester, on the mass-
day of St. Petronilla; (99) and his body was carried to Croyland,
where he lies buried. King William now went over sea, and led
his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the
Bretons defended it, until the king came from France; whereupon
William departed thence, having lost there both men and horses,
and many of his treasures.
A.D. 1077 . This year were reconciled the king of the Franks and
William, King of England. But it continued only a little while.
This year was London burned, one night before the Assumption of
St. Mary, so terribly as it never was before, since it was built.
This year the moon was eclipsed three nights before Candlemas;
and in the same year died Aylwy, the prudent Abbot of Evesham, on
the fourteenth day before the calends of March, on the mass-day
of St. Juliana; and Walter was appointed abbot in his stead; and
Bishop Herman also died, on the tenth day before the calends of
March, who was Bishop in Berkshire, and in Wiltshire, and in
Dorsetshire. This year also King Malcolm won the mother of
Malslaythe.... and all his best men, and all his treasures, and
his cattle; and he himself not easily escaped.... This year also
was the dry summer; and wild fire came upon many shires, and
burned many towns; and also many cities were ruined thereby.
A.D. 1079 . This year Robert, the son of King William, deserted
from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders; because his
father would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy; which he
himself, and also King Philip with his permission, had given him.
The best men that were in the land also had sworn oaths of
allegiance to him, and taken him for their lord. This year,
therefore, Robert fought with his father, without Normandy, by a
castle called Gerberoy; and wounded him in the hand; and his
horse, that he sat upon, was killed under him; and he that
brought him another was killed there right with a dart. That was
Tookie Wiggodson. Many were there slain, and also taken. His
son William too was there wounded; but Robert returned to
Flanders. We will not here, however, record any more injury that
he did his father. This year came King Malcolm from Scotland
into England, betwixt the two festivals of St. Mary, with a large
army, which plundered Northumberland till it came to the Tine,
and slew many hundreds of men, and carried home much coin, and
treasure, and men in captivity.
A.D. 1080 . This year was Bishop Walker slain in Durham, at a
council; and an hundred men with him, French and Flemish. He
himself was born in Lorrain. This did the Northumbrians in the
month of May. (100)
A.D. 1081 . This year the king led an army into Wales, and there
freed many hundreds of men.
A.D. 1082 . This year the king seized Bishop Odo; and this year
also was a great famine.
(97) Whence he sailed to Bretagne, according to Flor. S. Dunelm,
etc.; but according to Henry of Huntingdon he fled directly
to Denmark, returning afterwards with Cnute and Hacco, who
invaded England With a fleet of 200 sail.
(98) i.e. Earl Waltheof.
(99) This notice of St. Petronilla, whose name and existence seem
scarcely to have been known to the Latin historians, we owe
exclusively to the valuable MS. "Cotton Tiberius" B lv. Yet
if ever female saint deserved to be commemorated as a
conspicuous example of early piety and christian zeal, it
must be Petronilla.
(100) The brevity of our Chronicle here, and in the two following
years, in consequence of the termination of "Cotton
Tiberius" B iv., is remarkable. From the year 1083 it
assumes a character more decidedly Anglo-Norman.
History | Monarchs | Prime Ministers | Travel | London | Wales | Earth Mysteries
Church | News | People | Science | Arts | State | Catalog | Sports | Panorama | Links
Comments: e-mail us at email@example.com