A.D. 1070 . This year Landfranc, who was Abbot of Caen, came to
England; and after a few days he became Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was invested on the fourth before the calends of September in
his own see by eight bishops, his suffragans. The others, who
were not there, by messengers and by letter declared why they
could not be there. The same year Thomas, who was chosen Bishop
of York, came to Canterbury, to be invested there after the
ancient custom. But when Landfranc craved confirmation of his
obedience with an oath, he refused; and said, that he ought not
to do it. Whereupon Archbishop Landfranc was wroth, and bade the
bishops, who were come thither by Archbishop Landfranc's command
to do the service, and all the monks to unrobe themselves. And
they by his order so did. Thomas, therefore, for the time,
departed without consecration. Soon after this, it happened that
the Archbishop Landfranc went to Rome, and Thomas with him. When
they came thither, and had spoken about other things concerning
which they wished to speak, then began Thomas his speech: how he
came to Canterbury, and how the archbishop required obedience of
him with an oath; but he declined it. Then began the Archbishop
Landfranc to show with clear distinction, that what he craved he
craved by right; and with strong arguments he confirmed the same
before the Pope Alexander, and before all the council that was
collected there; and so they went home. After this came Thomas
to Canterbury; and all that the archbishop required of him he
humbly fulfilled, and afterwards received consecration. This
year Earl Waltheof agreed with the king; but in the Lent of the
same year the king ordered all the monasteries in England to be
plundered. In the same year came King Sweyne from Denmark into
the Humber; and the landsmen came to meet him, and made a treaty
with him; thinking that he would overrun the land. Then came
into Ely Christien, the Danish bishop, and Earl Osbern, and the
Danish domestics with them; and the English people from all the
fen-lands came to them; supposing that they should win all that
land. Then the monks of Peterborough heard say, that their own
men would plunder the minster; namely Hereward and his gang:
because they understood that the king had given the abbacy to a
French abbot, whose name was Thorold; -- that he was a very stern
man, and was then come into Stamford with all his Frenchmen. Now
there was a churchwarden, whose name was Yware; who took away by
night all that he could, testaments, mass-hackles, cantel-copes,
and reefs, and such other small things, whatsoever he could; and
went early, before day, to the Abbot Thorold; telling him that he
sought his protection, and informing him how the outlaws were
coming to Peterborough, and that he did all by advice of the
monks. Early in the morning came all the outlaws with many
ships, resolving to enter the minster; but the monks withstood,
so that they could not come in. Then they laid on fire, and
burned all the houses of the monks, and all the town except one
house. Then came they in through fire at the Bull-hithe gate;
where the monks met them, and besought peace of them. But they
regarded nothing. They went into the minster, climbed up to the
holy rood, took away the diadem from our Lord's head, all of pure
gold, and seized the bracket that was underneath his feet, which
was all of red gold. They climbed up to the steeple, brought
down the table that was hid there, which was all of gold and
silver, seized two golden shrines, and nine of silver, and took
away fifteen large crucifixes, of gold and of silver; in short,
they seized there so much gold and silver, and so many treasures,
in money, in raiment, and in books, as no man could tell another;
and said, that they did it from their attachment to the minster.
Afterwards they went to their ships, proceeded to Ely, and
deposited there all the treasure. The Danes, believing that they
should overcome the Frenchmen, drove out all the monks; leaving
there only one, whose name was Leofwine Lang, who lay sick in the
infirmary. Then came Abbot Thorold and eight times twenty
Frenchmen with him, all full-armed. When he came thither, he
found all within and without consumed by fire, except the church
alone; but the outlaws were all with the fleet, knowing that he
would come thither. This was done on the fourth day before the
nones of June. The two kings, William and Sweyne, were now
reconciled; and the Danes went out of Ely with all the aforesaid
treasure, and carried it away with them. But when they came into
the middle of the sea, there came a violent storm, and dispersed
all the ships wherein the treasures were. Some went to Norway,
some to Ireland, some to Denmark. All that reached the latter,
consisted of the table, and some shrines, and some crucifixes,
and many of the other treasures; which they brought to a king's
town, called ---, and deposited it all there in the church.
Afterwards through their own carelessness, and through their
drunkenness, in one night the church and all that was therein was
consumed by fire. Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned
and plundered. Almighty God have mercy on it through his great
goodness. Thus came the Abbot Thorold to Peterborough; and the
monks too returned, and performed the service of Christ in the
church, which had before stood a full week without any kind of
rite. When Bishop Aylric heard it, he excommunicated all the men
who that evil deed had done. There was a great famine this year:
and in the summer came the fleet in the north from the Humber
into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and made afterwards
for Denmark. Earl Baldwin also died, and his son Arnulf
succeeded to the earldom. Earl William, in conjunction with the
king of the Franks, was to be his guardian; but Earl Robert came
and slew his kinsman Arnulf and the earl, put the king to flight,
and slew many thousands of his men.

A.D. 1071 . This year Earl Edwin and Earl Morkar fled out, (93)
and roamed at random in woods and in fields. Then went Earl
Morkar to Ely by ship; but Earl Edwin was treacherously slain by
his own men. Then came Bishop Aylwine, and Siward Barn, and many
hundred men with them, into Ely. When King William heard that,
then ordered he out a naval force and land force, and beset the
land all about, and wrought a bridge, and went in; and the naval
force at the same time on the sea-side. And the outlaws then all
surrendered; that was, Bishop Aylwine, and Earl Morkar, and all
that were with them; except Hereward (94) alone, and all those
that would join him, whom he led out triumphantly. And the king
took their ships, and weapons, and many treasures; (95) and all
the men he disposed of as he thought proper. Bishop Aylwine he
sent to Abingdon, where he died in the beginning of the winter.

A.D. 1072 . This year King William led a naval force and a land
force to Scotland, and beset that land on the sea-side with
ships, whilst he led his land-force in at the Tweed; (96) but he
found nothing there of any value. King Malcolm, however, came,
and made peace with King William, and gave hostages, and became
his man; whereupon the king returned home with all his force.
This year died Bishop Aylric. He had been invested Bishop of
York; but that see was unjustly taken from him, and he then had
the bishopric of Durham given him; which he held as long as he
chose, but resigned it afterwards, and retired to Peterborough
minster; where he abode twelve years. After that King William
won England, then took he him from Peterborough, and sent him to
Westminster; where he died on the ides of October, and he is
there buried, within the minster, in the porch of St. Nicholas.


(93) i.e. -- threw off their allegiance to the Norman usurper,
and became voluntary outlaws. The habits of these outlaws,
or, at least, of their imitators and descendants in the next
century, are well described in the romance of "Ivanhoe".
(94) The author of the Gallo-Norman poem printed by Sparke
elevates his diction to a higher tone, when describing the
feasts of this same Hereward, whom he calls "le uthlage
(95) Or much "coin"; many "scaettae"; such being the denomination
of the silver money of the Saxons.
(96) Florence of Worcester and those who follow him say that
William proceeded as far as Abernethy; where Malcolm met
him, and surrendered to him.

Chronicle Years: 1067-69
Chronicle Years: 1073-82

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