A.D. 1067 . This year came the king back again to England on St.
Nicholas's day; and the same day was burned the church of Christ
at Canterbury. Bishop Wulfwy also died, and is buried at his see
in Dorchester. The child Edric and the Britons were unsettled
this year, and fought with the castlemen at Hereford, and did
them much harm. The king this year imposed a heavy guild on the
wretched people; but, notwithstanding, let his men always plunder
all the country that they went over; and then he marched to
Devonshire, and beset the city of Exeter eighteen days. There
were many of his army slain; out he had promised them well, and
performed ill; and the citizens surrendered the city because the
thanes had betrayed them. This summer the child Edgar departed,
with his mother Agatha, and his two sisters, Margaret and
Christina, and Merle-Sweyne, and many good men with them; and
came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm, who
entertained them all. Then began King Malcolm to yearn after the
child's sister, Margaret, to wife; but he and all his men long
refused; and she also herself was averse, and said that she would
neither have him nor any one else, if the Supreme Power would
grant, that she in her maidenhood might please the mighty Lord
with a carnal heart, in this short life, in pure continence. The
king, however, earnestly urged her brother, until he answered
Yea. And indeed he durst not otherwise; for they were come into
his kingdom. So that then it was fulfilled, as God had long ere
foreshowed; and else it could not be; as he himself saith in his
gospel: that "not even a sparrow on the ground may fall, without
his foreshowing." The prescient Creator wist long before what he
of her would have done; for that she should increase the glory of
God in this land, lead the king aright from the path of error,
bend him and his people together to a better way, and suppress
the bad customs which the nation formerly followed: all which she
afterwards did. The king therefore received her, though it was
against her will, and was pleased with her manners, and thanked
God, who in his might had given him such a match. He wisely
bethought himself, as he was a prudent man, and turned himself to
God, and renounced all impurity; accordingly, as the apostle
Paul, the teacher of all the gentries, saith: "Salvabitur vir
infidelis per mulierem fidelem; sic et mulier infidelis per virum
fidelem," etc.: that is in our language, "Full oft the
unbelieving husband is sanctified and healed through the
believing wife, and so belike the wife through the believing
husband." This queen aforesaid performed afterwards many useful
deeds in this land to the glory of God, and also in her royal
estate she well conducted herself, as her nature was. Of a
faithful and noble kin was she sprung. Her father was Edward
Etheling, son of King Edmund. Edmund was the son of Ethelred;
Ethelred the son of Edgar; Edgar the son of Edred; and so forth
in that royal line: and her maternal kindred goeth to the Emperor
Henry, who had the sovereignty over Rome. This year went out
Githa, Harold's mother, and the wives of many good men with her,
to the Flat-Holm, and there abode some time; and so departed
thence over sea to St. Omer's. This Easter came the king to
Winchester; and Easter was then on the tenth before the calends
of April. Soon after this came the Lady Matilda hither to this
land; and Archbishop Eldred hallowed her to queen at Westminster
on Whit Sunday. Then it was told the king, that the people in
the North had gathered themselves together, and would stand
against him if he came. Whereupon he went to Nottingham, and
wrought there a castle; and so advanced to York, and there
wrought two castles; and the same at Lincoln, and everywhere in
that quarter. Then Earl Gospatric and the best men went into
Scotland. Amidst this came one of Harold's sons from Ireland
with a naval force into the mouth of the Avon unawares, and
plundered soon over all that quarter; whence they went to
Bristol, and would have stormed the town; but the people bravely
withstood them. When they could gain nothing from the town, they
went to their ships with the booty which they had acquired by
plunder; and then they advanced upon Somersetshire, and there
went up; and Ednoth, master of the horse, fought with them; but
he was there slain, and many good men on either side; and those
that were left departed thence.

A.D. 1068 . This year King William gave Earl Robert the earldom
over Northumberland; but the landsmen attacked him in the town of
Durham, and slew him, and nine hundred men with him. Soon
afterwards Edgar Etheling came with all the Northumbrians to
York; and the townsmen made a treaty with him: but King William
came from the South unawares on them with a large army, and put
them to flight, and slew on the spot those who could not escape;
which were many hundred men; and plundered the town. St. Peter's
minster he made a profanation, and all other places also he
despoiled and trampled upon; and the etheling went back again to
Scotland. After this came Harold's sons from Ireland, about
midsummer, with sixty-four ships into the mouth of the Taft,
where they unwarily landed: and Earl Breon came unawares against
them with a large army, and fought with them, and slew there all
the best men that were in the fleet; and the others, being small
forces, escaped to the ships: and Harold's sons went back to
Ireland again.

A.D. 1069 . This year died Aldred, Archbishop of York; and he is
there buried, at his see. He died on the day of Protus and
Hyacinthus, having held the see with much dignity ten years
wanting only fifteen weeks. Soon after this came from Denmark
three of the sons of King Sweyne with two hundred and forty
ships, together with Earl Esborn and Earl Thurkill, into the
Humber; where they were met by the child Edgar, and Earl
Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and Earl Gospatric with the
Northumbrians, and all the landsmen; riding and marching full
merrily with an immense army: and so all unanimously advanced to
York; where they stormed and demolished the castle, and won
innumerable treasures therein; slew there many hundreds of
Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships; but, ere that the
shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and also
the holy minster of St. Peter had they entirely plundered, and
destroyed with fire. When the king heard this, then went he
northward with all the force that he could collect, despoiling
and laying waste the shire withal; whilst the fleet lay all the
winter in the Humber, where the king could not come at them. The
king was in York on Christmas Day, and so all the winter on land,
and came to Winchester at Easter. Bishop Egelric, who was at
Peterborough, was this year betrayed, and led to Westminster; and
his brother Egelwine was outlawed. This year also died Brand,
Abbot of Peterborough, on the fifth before the calends of

Chronicle Year: 1066
Chronicle Years: 1070-72

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