A.D. 1065 . This year, before Lammas, ordered Earl Harold his men
to build at Portskeweth in Wales. But when he had begun, and
collected many materials, and thought to have King Edward there
for the purpose of hunting, even when it was all ready, came
Caradoc, son of Griffin, with all the gang that he could get, and
slew almost all that were building there; and they seized the
materials that were there got ready. Wist we not who first
advised the wicked deed. This was done on the mass-day of St.
Bartholomew. Soon after this all the thanes in Yorkshire and in
Northumberland gathered themselves together at York, and outlawed
their Earl Tosty; slaying all the men of his clan that they could
reach, both Danish and English; and took all his weapons in York,
with gold and silver, and all his money that they could anywhere
there find. They then sent after Morkar, son of Earl Elgar, and
chose him for their earl. He went south with all the shire, and
with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, till he
came to Northampton; where his brother Edwin came to meet him
with the men that were in his earldom. Many Britons also came
with him. Harold also there met them; on whom they imposed an
errand to King Edward, sending also messengers with him, and
requesting that they might have Morcar for their earl. This the
king granted; and sent back Harold to them, to Northampton, on
the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude; and announced to them the
same, and confirmed it by hand, and renewed there the laws of
Knute. But the Northern men did much harm about Northampton,
whilst he went on their errand: either that they slew men, and
burned houses and corn; or took all the cattle that they could
come at; which amounted to many thousands. Many hundred men also
they took, and led northward with them; so that not only that
shire, but others near it were the worse for many winters. Then
Earl Tosty and his wife, and all they who acted with him, went
south over sea with him to Earl Baldwin; who received them all:
and they were there all the winter. About midwinter King Edward
came to Westminster, and had the minster there consecrated, which
he had himself built to the honour of God, and St. Peter, and all
God's saints. This church-hallowing was on Childermas-day. He
died on the eve of twelfth-day; and he was buried on twelfth-day
in the same minster; as it is hereafter said.
Here Edward king, (86)
of Angles lord,
sent his stedfast
soul to Christ.
In the kingdom of God
a holy spirit!
He in the world here
abode awhile,
in the kingly throng
of council sage.
Four and twenty
winters wielding
the sceptre freely,
wealth he dispensed.
In the tide of health,
the youthful monarch,
offspring of Ethelred!
ruled well his subjects;
the Welsh and the Scots,
and the Britons also,
Angles and Saxons
relations of old.
So apprehend
the first in rank,
that to Edward all
the noble king
were firmly held
high-seated men.
Blithe-minded aye
was the harmless king;
though he long ere,
of land bereft,
abode in exile
wide on the earth;
when Knute o'ercame
the kin of Ethelred,
and the Danes wielded
the dear kingdom
of Engle-land.
Eight and twenty
winters' rounds
they wealth dispensed.
Then came forth
free in his chambers,
in royal array,
good, pure, and mild,
Edward the noble;
by his country defended --
by land and people.
Until suddenly came
the bitter Death
and this king so dear
snatched from the earth.
Angels carried
his soul sincere
into the light of heaven.
But the prudent king
had settled the realm
on high-born men --
on Harold himself,
the noble earl;
who in every season
faithfully heard
and obeyed his lord,
in word and deed;
nor gave to any
what might be wanted
by the nation's king.
This year also was Earl Harold hallowed to king; but he enjoyed
little tranquillity therein the while that he wielded the

((A.D. 1065 . And the man-slaying was on St. Bartholomew's
mass-day. And then, after Michael's-mass, all the thanes in
Yorkshire went to York, and there slew all Earl Tosty's household
servants whom they might hear of, and took his treasures: and
Tosty was then at Britford with the king. And then, very soon
thereafter, was a great council at Northampton; and then at
Oxford on the day of Simon and Jude. And there was Harold the
earl, and would work their reconciliation if he might, but he
could not: but all his earldom him unanimously forsook and
outlawed, and all who with him lawlessness upheld, because he
robbed God first, and all those bereaved over whom he had power
of life and of land. And they then took to themselves Morkar for
earl; and Tosty went then over sea, and his wife with him, to
Baldwin's land, and they took up their winter residence at St.


(86) This threnodia on the death of Edward the Confessor will be
found to correspond, both in metre and expression, with the
poetical paraphrase of Genesis ascribed to Caedmon.

Chronicle Years: 1056-63
Chronicle Year: 1066

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