1051
A.D. 1051 . This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with
his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took
his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and
soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to
him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should
consecrate him Bishop oú London; but the archbishop refused,
saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to
the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded
episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused,
repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot
to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before
given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn.
Then during the same year came Eustace, who had the sister of
King Edward to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and
went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose,
he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward,
there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to
Dover. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he
put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they
proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to
quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his
men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against
his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was
slain by the other. Then was Eustace quickly upon his horse, and
his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the
family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the
boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty
men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and
wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace escaped with a
few men, and went again to the king, telling him partially how
they had fared. The king was very wroth with the townsmen, and
sent off Earl Godwin, bidding him go into Kent with hostility to
Dover. For Eustace had told the king that the guilt of the
townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl
would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to
destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his
council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of
St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin took it much to heart, that in his
earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather
forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne, his son, over his;
and Harold, his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled
all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a large and innumerable
army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace and
his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen
that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the
latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward was sitting at
Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north
after Earl Siward, and summoned their retinues. At first they
came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in
the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and
ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph
also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to
the aid of the king, though it was late. So unanimous were they
all in defence of the king, that they would seek Godwin's army if
the king desired it. But some prevented that; because it was
very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies
was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore
prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy
of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt
ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange
hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout
to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this
north end in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also
elsewhere; and Earl Godwin was to come thither with his sons to a
conference; They came as far as Southwark, and very many with
them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and
more; for they bound over to the king all the thanes that
belonged to Earl Harold his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne his
other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come
to a conference against the king and against the army that was
with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king
held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole
army; himself and his wife, and all his three sons -- Sweyne and
Tosty and Grith. And he went south to Thorney, (67) with his
wife, and Sweyne his son, and Tosty and his wife, a cousin of
Baldwin of Bruges, and his son Grith. Earl Harold with Leofwine
went to Bristol in the ship that Earl Sweyne had before prepared
and provisioned for himself; and the king sent Bishop Aldred from
London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came
to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then
went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such
adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered
great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the
weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a
castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne, and
brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's men thereabout
as they could. Then came Earl Godwin, and Earl Sweyne, and Earl
Harold, together at Beverstone, and many men with them; to the
intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the
peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's counsel
and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge
the insult offered to the king, and to all the nation. But the
Welshmen were before with the king, and bewrayed the earls, so
that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his
eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to
betray the king. There was now assembled before the king (68)
Earl Siward, and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the
north: and it was told Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king
and the men who were with him would take counsel against them;
but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were
loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the
peers on either side, that they should abstain from all
hostility: and the king gave God's peace and his full friendship
to each party. Then advised the king and his council, that there
should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in
London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king ordered out an army
both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then
was Earl Sweyne proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin and Earl
Harold were summoned to the council as early as they could come.
When they came thither and were cited to the council, then
required they security and hostages, that they might come into
the council and go out without treachery. The king then demanded
all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his
hands. Then sent the king again to them, and commanded them to
come with twelve men to the king's council. Then desired the
earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to
each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the
hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him
to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin and Earl Sweyne
to Bosham, and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking
the protection of Baldwin; and there they abode all the winter.
Earl Harold went westward to Ireland, and was there all the
winter on the king's security. It was from Thorney (69) that
Godwin and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's
land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge
therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by
every man that was then in England, if any person had said before
this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a
height, that he ruled the king and all England; his sons were
earls, and the king's darlings; and his daughter wedded and
united to the king. Soon after this took place, the king
dismissed the lady who had been consecrated his queen, and
ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in
gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the
care of his sister at Wherwell. Soon after came Earl William
from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king
entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient
to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven
from his bishopric at London; and William the king's priest was
invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over
Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales;
and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom
which Harold before possessed.

((A.D. 1051 . In this year died Eadsine, Archbishop of
Canterbury; and the king gave to Robert the Frenchman, who before
had been Bishop of London, the archbishopric. And Sparhafoc,
Abbot of Abingdon, succeeded to the bishopric of London; and it
was afterwards taken from him before he was consecrated. And
Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred went to Rome.))

Notes:

67) The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse
because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.
(68) i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle;
which omits all that took place in the meantime at London
and Southwark.
(69) Now Westminster.

Chronicle Years: 1049-50
Chronicle Year: 1052 (first part)


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