A.D. 1047 . This year died Athelstan, Abbot of Abingdon, on the
fourth day before the calends of April; and Sparhawk, monk of St.
Edmundsbury, succeeded him. Easter day was then on the third day
before the nones of April; and there was over all England very
great loss of men this year also. The same year came to Sandwich
Lothen and Irling, with twenty-five ships, and plundered and took
incalculable spoil, in men, and in gold, and in silver, so that
no man wist what it all was; and went then about Thanet, and
would there have done the same; but the land-folk firmly
withstood, and resisted them both by land and sea, and thence put
them to flight withal. They betook themselves thence into Essex,
where they plundered and took men, and whatsoever they could
find, whence they departed eastward to Baldwin's land, and having
deposited the booty they had gained, they returned east to the
place whence they had come before.

((A.D. 1047 . This year died Living the eloquent bishop, on the
tenth before the kalends of April, and he had three bishoprics;
one in Devonshire, and in Cornwall, and in Worcester. Then
Leofric (61) succeeded to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop
Aldred to Worcester. And in this year Osgod, the master of the
horse, was outlawed: and Magnus [King of Norway] won Denmark. In
this year there was a great council in London at mid-Lent, and
nine ships of lightermen were discharged, and five remained
behind. In this same year came Sweyn the earl into England. And
in this same year was the great synod at Rome, and King Edward
sent thither Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred; and they came
thither on Easter eve. And afterwards the pope held a synod at
Vercelli, and Bishop Ulf came thereto; and well nigh would they
have broken his staff, if he had not given very great gifts;
because he knew not how to do his duty so well as he should. And
in this year died Archbishop Eadsine, on the fourth before the
kalends of November.))

A.D. 1048 . This year came Sweyne back to Denmark; and Harold,
the uncle of Magnus, went to Norway on the death of Magnus, and
the Northmen submitted to him. He sent an embassy of peace to
this land, as did also Sweyne from Denmark, requesting of King
Edward naval assistance to the amount at least of fifty ships;
but all the people resisted it. This year also there was an
earthquake, on the calends of May, in many places; at Worcester,
at Wick, and at Derby, and elsewhere wide throughout England;
with very great loss by disease of men and of cattle over all
England; and the wild fire in Derbyshire and elsewhere did much
harm. In the same year the enemy plundered Sandwich, and the
Isle of Wight, and slew the best men that were there; and King
Edward and the earls went out after them with their ships. The
same year Bishop Siward resigned his bishopric from infirmity,
and retired to Abingdon; upon which Archbishop Edsy resumed the
bishopric; and he died within eight weeks of this, on the tenth
day before the calends of November.

((A.D. 1048 . This year was the severe winter: and this year died
Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, and Bishop Stigand was raised to his
see. And before that, in the same year, died Grinketel, Bishop
in Sussex, and Heca the priest succeeded to the bishopric. And
Sweyn also sent hither, begging assistance against Magnus, King
of Norway; that fifty ships should be sent to his aid. But it
seemed unadvisable to all people: and it was then hindered by
reason that Magnus had a great ship-force. And he then drove out
Sweyn, and with much man-slaying won the land: and the Danes paid
him much money and acknowledged him as king. And that same year
Magnus died. In this year King Edward appointed Robert, of
London, Archbishop of Canterbury, during Lent. And in the same
Lent he went to Rome after his pall: and the king gave the
bishopric of London to Sparhafoc, Abbot of Abingdon; and the king
gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop Rodulf, his kinsman. Then
came the archbishop from Rome one day before St. Peter's mass-
eve, and entered on his archiepiscopal see at Christ's Church on
St. Peter's mass-day; and soon after went to the king. Then came
Abbot Sparhafoc to him with the king's writ and seal, in order
that he should consecrate him Bishop of London. Then the
archbishop refused, and said that the pope had forbidden it him.
Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for that purpose, and
there desired episcopal ordination; and the archbishop constantly
refused him, and said that the pope had forbidden it him. Then
went the abbot to London, and occupied the bishopric which the
king before had granted him, with his full leave, all the summer
and the harvest. And then came Eustace [Earl of Boulogne] from
beyond sea soon after the bishop, and went to the king, and spoke
with him that which he then would, and went then homeward. When
he came to Canterbury, east, then took he refreshment there, and
his men, and went to Dover. When he was some mile or more, on
this side of Dover, then he put on his breast-plate, and so did
all his companions, and went to Dover. When they came thither,
then would they lodge themselves where they chose. Then came one
of his men, and would abide in the house of a householder against
his will, and wounded the householder; and the householder slew
the other. Then Eustace got upon his horse, and his companions
upon theirs; and they went to the householder, and slew him
within his own dwelling; and they went up towards the town, and
slew, as well within as without, more than twenty men. And the
townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded they
knew not how many. And Eustace escaped with a few men, and went
again to the king, and made known to him, in part, how they had
fared. And the king became very wroth with the townsmen. And
the king sent off Godwin the earl, and bade him go into Kent in a
hostile manner to Dover: for Eustace had made it appear to the
king, that it had been more the fault of the townsmen than his:
but it was not so. And the earl would not consent to the inroad,
because he was loth to injure his own people. Then the king sent
after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester, nigh the
aftermass of St. Mary. Then had the Welshmen erected a castle in
Herefordshire among the people of Sweyn the earl, and wrought
every kind of harm and disgrace to the king's men there about
which they could. Then came Godwin the earl, and Sweyn the earl,
and Harold the earl, together at Beverstone, and many men with
them, in order that they might go to their royal lord, and to all
the peers who were assembled with him, in order that they might
have the advice of the king and his aid, and of all this council,
how they might avenge the king's disgrace, and the whole
nation's. Then were the Welshmen with the king beforehand, and
accused the earls, so that they might not come within his eyes'
sight; because they said that they were coming thither in order
to betray the king. Thither had come Siward the earl [Of
Northumbria] and Leofric the earl [Of Mercia], and much people
with them, from the north, to the king; and it was made known to
the Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king and the men who were
with him, were taking counsel concerning them: and they arrayed
themselves on the other hand resolutely, though it were loathful
to them that they should stand against their royal lord. Then
the peers on either side decreed that every kind of evil should
cease: and the king gave the peace of God and his full friendship
to either side. Then the king and his peers decreed that a
council of all the nobles should be held for the second time in
London at the harvest equinox; and the king directed the army to
be called out, as well south of the Thames as north, all that was
in any way most eminent. Then declared they Sweyn the earl an
outlaw, and summoned Godwin the earl and Harold the earl, to the
council, as quickly as they could effect it. When they had come
thither, then were they summoned into the council. Then required
he safe conduct and hostages, so that he might come, unbetrayed,
into the council and out of the council. Then the king demanded
all the thanes whom the earls before had: and they granted them
all into his hands. Then the king sent again to them, and
commanded them that they should come with twelve men to the
king's council. Then the earl again required safe conduct and
hostages, that he might defend himself against each of those
things which were laid to him. Then were the hostages refused
him; and he was allowed a safe conduct for five nights to go out
of the land. And then Godwin the earl and Sweyn the earl went to
Bosham, and shoved out their ships, and betook themselves beyond
sea, and sought Baldwin's protection, and abode there all the
winter. And Harold the earl went west to Ireland, and was there
all the winter within the king's protection. And soon after this
happened, then put away the king the lady who had been
consecrated his queen [Editha], and caused to be taken from her
all which she possessed, in land, and in gold, and in silver, and
in all things, and delivered her to his sister at Wherwell. And
Abbot Sparhafoc was then driven out of the bishopric of London,
and William the king's priest was ordained thereto. And then
Odda was appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and
over Dorset, and over the Welsh. And Algar, the son of Leofric
the earl, was appointed to the earldom which Harold before


(61) Leofric removed the see to Exeter.

Chronicle Years: 1043-46
Chronicle Years: 1049-50

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