Robert Arthur Talbot - Gascoyne-Cecil Salisbury
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
1885-86, 1886-92, 1895-1901
Salisbury began his career in politics in 1853 when he entered the House of Commons. His first office was secretary for India under Derby from 1866 to 1867, when he resigned in protest over a reform bill. He succeeded to his titled, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, in 1868. He again served as secretary for India from 1874-78 and as foreign secretary in Disraeli's second government (1878-80). He went with Disraeli to the congress of Berlin in 1878 to decide the borders of the Balkan states after the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War.
After Disraeli died in 1881, Salisbury became Conservative leader and in June of 1885 he was prime minister. His second government saw the passage of the Local Government Act in 1888, which created county councils and large towns as county seats decentralizing power. His third government was a coalition between Unionist, Conservatives and Liberals. His time was chiefly occupied with the second Boer War (1899-1902).
1885 - Grover Cleveland is the US president.
1886 - The first classified personals are run in "The Times." Unemployed riot in Oxford Street and Pall Mall.
1887 - The American Exhibition opens at West Brompton, London, offering up "Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. Carlisle Graham survives his second plunge over Niagara Falls in a barrel.
1888 - Vincent Van Gogh cuts off his ear in Arles in the south of France. London's News Agency receives a letter sign by "Jack the Ripper." The Kodak box camera is patented by George Eastman. 642 British women workers go on strike at the Bryant & May Match Company in London over working conditions. Karl Benz sells the first petrol-driven car manufactured in his new factory.
1889 - Earl Stanley Gardner, the creator of "Perry Mason" is born in the US. Benjamin Harrison is elected president in America.
1890 - Sitting Bull, the Sioux Chief who defeated General Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn is shot dead by Indian police on the reservation in the process of being falsely arrested. He was 59.
1891 - London and Paris are linked by telephone. In Russian, construction begins on the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
1895 - Louis Pasteur dies. Oscar Wilde's play, "The Importance of Being Earnest," opens in London.
1896 - The first modern Olympic games was held in Athens. London's first parking ticket is issued.
1897 - The Tate Gallery opens in London. Anthony Eden is born. William McKinley is elected US president.
1898 - Britain leases Hong Kong from China for 99 years. The "Maine" is sunk in Havana harbour, marking the start of the Spanish-American War.
1899 - The outbreak of the second Boer War. James Cagney is born. The first death by motorcycle crash in Britain is recorded. Everyone's favourite Neopolitan song, "O Solo Mio!", is published.
1900 - The Metro in Paris opens. The British under Kitchener take Pretoria, Johannesburg, and Bloemfontein. The Boxer Rebellion begins in China. In Germany, the Zeppelin makes its maiden flight.
1901 - Critics rave at Picasso's first exhibition in Paris. Vittorio de Sica is born. Theodore Roosevelt is elected US president.
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