1st Duke of Wellington
Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, was a soldier first and a politician second. Born in Ireland, son of an Irish peer, he sat in the Irish Parliament.
Knighted for army service in India, Wellington went on to distinguish himself, becoming a national hero, due to his exploits and victories in the Peninsula War throwing the French out of Spain and his defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at Quatre-Bras and Battle of Waterloo in 1815, as general of the allied armies. Following his victory at Waterloo, Wellington served as a member of the Congress of Vienna where he opposed dividing France and supported the restoration of the Bourbons.
Wellington became prime minister (1828-30). His government proved unpopular for its lack of resolve against parliamentary reform and being forced to concede to Roman Catholic emancipation.
After leaving office as prime minister, Wellington served as foreign secretary in the government of William Lamb, and in the cabinet of Robert Peel. He was also sporadically commander-in-chief from 1827, holding that title from 1842 until his death in 1852.
1828 - Russia declares war on Turkey. Uruguay becomes independent republic. Liberals revolt in Mexico, Vicente Guerrero become president. Andrew Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams in U. S. presidential election. Charles Carroll, America's richest man begins construction of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. Working Men's party founded in New York. Noah Webster publishes the "American Dictionary of the English Language." In London, Samuel Jones patents a glass bead containing acid, as the "Promethean match." Weekly "The Spectator" appears.
1829 - Act of Parliament establishes a London police force. Thomas Attwood forms Birmingham Political Union to push for parliamentary reform. President Guerrero of Mexico is ousted by General Anastasio Bustamante. Turkey recognizes Greece, Peace of Adrianople ends Russo-Turk war. Edgar Allen Poe publishes "Tamerlane " and other poems. Tennyson publishes "Timbuctoo." Washington Irving hits with a best seller, "The Conquest of Granada." The concertina is patented. Daguerre and Niepce form a partnership to "develop" their photographic inventions. The first Oxford-Cambridge boat race is contested at Henley. Centralized London Metro Police Force is instituted. In America, James Smithson, a British chemist, leaves £100,000 to found the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D. C. The Delaware and Hudson gravity railroad opens. Typewriter is patented granted first patent.
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