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Augustus Henry Fitzroy
3rd Duke of Grafton

Grafton was first lord of the treasury in Pitt's SECOND government (1766-68), but Pitt left much of the political leadership to Grafton, who officially took over as prime minister after Pitt resigned.

Grafton inherited a cabinet in disarray, many having deserted Pitt's sinking ship. He was also forced to deal with the aftermath of the North Briton case which dragged on through the courts. Wilkes, an MP, won damages against the 2nd Earl of Halifax for illegal arrest. He was thrown out of the House while out of the country in Paris, declared an outlaw, imprisoned, released, expelled from the parliament (1769) twice re-elected and the story continues. With all this going on, Grafton was unable to implement his policy of concilation towards the colonies during his time in office.

He served as a minister in the governments of North and Rockingham (1771-75, 1782-83).

PHOTO CREDIT: Detail, Department of Prints and Drawings, British Museum, London.


1768 - Bostonians refuse to quarter British troops. Nepal falls to Gurkhas. France buys Corsica. Explorer, Captain James Cook, sets sails on his first voyage of discovery, circumnavigating of the globe.
1769 - In London, the Privy council keeps tea duty in force in American colonies. Lightening conductors are installed on tall buildings for the first time. The "London Chronicle" appears in London.
1770 - The "Boston Massacre" takes place. British Parliament repeals duties on paper, glass and dyes, retains tea duty. William Wordsworth, Ludwig van Beethoven and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, the German philosopher; are born. The Industrial Revolution begins to be exported to the world from England. Exports include steam power, textile machinery, and the concepts of free trade and civil liberties.

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